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Also known asBCC7, BMFS5, LFS1, P53, TRP53
TP53 (Tumor Protein p53) is a gene that encodes the tumor protein p53, which acts as a tumor suppressor. The p53 protein plays a critical role in maintaining the stability of the cell cycle and preventing the development of cancer. It does this by monitoring the integrity of the genome and responding to DNA damage by either repairing the damage or inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis (programmed cell death).
Mutations in the TP53 gene are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations lead to the production of a non-functional p53 protein, which is unable to perform its normal functions, leading to the unrestrained growth of cells and the development of cancer. The p53 mutations are found in many types of cancer, including lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer.
In addition, TP53 mutations are also found in several inherited cancer predisposition syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare inherited disorder characterized by a predisposition to develop multiple types of cancer, often at an early age.
Overall, TP53 is considered as the guardian of the genome and its mutations are one of the most common genetic events in human cancer.