Also known as5DI, THMA2, TXDI1
DIO1 (deiodinase, iodothyronine, type I) is a gene that codes for the deiodinase type I enzyme. This enzyme plays a key role in the metabolism of thyroid hormones, specifically by converting the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in peripheral tissues.
Deiodinase type I is mostly expressed in liver, muscle, kidney, and pituitary gland and it is responsible for the majority of T3 production in the body. The activity of DIO1 is regulated by a number of factors including nutrient availability and stress. Alterations in DIO1 activity have been associated with various disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid cancer.
Research suggests that DIO1 could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of thyroid-related disorders. In addition, it has been also suggested that DIO1 may have a role in the regulation of energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues.