Vinpocetine - NutraHacker Journal Club

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An update on vinpocetine: New discoveries and clinical implications

Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been clinically used in many countries for treatment of cerebrovascular disorders such as stroke and dementia for more than 30 years. Currently, vinpocetine is also available in the market as a dietary supplement to enhance cognition and memory. Due to its excellent safety profile, increasing efforts have been put into exploring the novel therapeutic effects and mechanism of actions of vinpocetine in various cell types and disease models. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel functions of vinpocetine, including anti-inflammation, antagonizing injury-induced vascular remodeling and high-fat-diet-induced atherosclerosis, as well as attenuating pathological cardiac remodeling. These novel findings may facilitate the repositioning of vinpocetine for preventing or treating relevant disorders in humans.

Role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases

A cerebrovascular accident, or stroke, is defined as the abrupt onset of a neurological deficit, which can be due to ischemia. Cerebral ischemia is caused by a reduction in blood flow that thereby decreases cerebral metabolism. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion leads to irreversible brain damage and plays an important role in the development of certain types of dementia. Vinpocetine, chemically known as ethyl apovincaminate, is a vinca alkaloid that exhibits cerebral blood-flow enhancing and neuroprotective effects. Non-clinical and clinical studies have suggested multiple mechanisms responsible for the beneficial neuroprotective effects of vinpocetine. As no significant side effects related to vinpocetine treatment have been reported, it is considered to be safe for long-term use. This vasoactive alkaloid is widely marketed as a supplement for vasodilation and as a nootropic for the improvement of memory. The present review focuses on studies investigating the role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases.

[Mechanism of action of vinpocetine]

Early experiments with vinpocetine indicated five main pharmacological and biochemical actions: (1) selective enhancement of the brain circulation and oxygen utilization without significant alteration in parameters of systemic circulation, (2) increased tolerance of the brain toward hypoxia and ischemia, (3) anticonvulsant activity, (4) inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme and (5) improvement of rheological properties of the blood and inhibition of aggregation of thrombocytes. Later studies in various laboratories confirmed the above effects and clearly demonstrated that vinpocetine offers significant and direct neuroprotection both under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

Vinpocetine is the forthcoming adjuvant agent in the management of COVID-19

Personalized medicine: Vinpocetine to reverse effects of GABRB3 mutation

Studies on Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Potential of Vinpocetine

Role of vinpocetine in ischemic stroke and poststroke outcomes: A critical review

Vinpocetine suppresses pathological vascular remodeling by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration

Vinpocetine (A comprehensive profile)

Updates of Recent Vinpocetine Research in Treating Cardiovascular Diseases

Vinpocetine Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Remodeling by Inhibiting Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis

[The role of vinpocetine in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases based in human studies]

Vinpocetine effects on cognitive impairments produced by flunitrazepam

Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in normal healthy volunteers

Asymptomatic ischemic cerebrovascular disorders and neuroprotection with vinpocetine

The influence of hypoxia and prolonged exercise on attentional performance at high and extreme altitudes: A pilot study

Normobaric Hypoxia and Submaximal Exercise Effects on Running Memory and Mood State in Women

Effect of acute hypoxia on cognition: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis

Cognitive performance is associated with cerebral oxygenation and peripheral oxygen saturation, but not plasma catecholamines, during graded normobaric hypoxia

Enhanced oral bioavailability of vinpocetine through mechanochemical salt formation: physico-chemical characterization and in vivo studies

Vinpocetine reduces carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice by inhibiting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation in the paw and spinal cord

Vinpocetine: nootropic effects on scopolamine-induced and hypoxia-induced retrieval deficits of a step-through passive avoidance response in rats

Vinpocetine enhances retrieval of a step-through passive avoidance response in rats

Vinpocetine regulates levels of circulating TLRs in Parkinson's disease patients

[Investigation of the effect of vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow and cognitive functions]

Vinpocetine Improves Scopolamine Induced Learning and Memory Dysfunction in C57 BL/6J Mice

Memory Enhancers for Alzheimer's Dementia: Focus on cGMP

Role of vinpocetine in ischemic stroke and poststroke outcomes: A critical review

Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

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