Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - NutraPedia

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Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid (TTA)

1) Conditions Studied for Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid

Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid has been studied for various metabolic conditions, particularly:

  • Obesity and weight management
  • Diabetes and insulin sensitivity
  • Dyslipidemia (abnormal lipid levels)
  • Inflammatory conditions

2) Efficacy in Treating Studied Conditions

The efficacy of TTA in treating the aforementioned conditions is still under investigation. Some studies suggest that TTA:

  • May reduce body fat mass by enhancing fatty acid oxidation
  • Could improve insulin sensitivity in animal models
  • May have potential in managing blood lipid levels
  • Has shown anti-inflammatory properties in some research

3) Health Benefits of Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid

Some proposed health benefits of TTA include:

  • Modulation of lipid metabolism
  • Possible improvement of insulin sensitivity
  • Reduction in inflammation markers
  • Potential antioxidant effects

4) Downsides of Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid

While TTA may offer health benefits, it also has potential downsides:

  • Further research is required to confirm its safety and efficacy
  • Long-term effects are not well-understood
  • Possible side effects have not been thoroughly studied

5) Genetic Variations and Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid

There is limited information on whether TTA is particularly beneficial or harmful for specific genetic variations. However, individual responses to TTA may vary due to:

  • Genetic factors affecting lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity
  • Genetic predispositions to obesity or other metabolic disorders
  • Differences in absorption and metabolism of TTA

Further research is necessary to clarify the role of genetic variations in response to TTA supplementation.

Research Summary on Tetradecylthioacetic Acid (TTA)

Tetradecylthioacetic Acid (TTA) is a sulfur-substituted fatty acid analogue known for its hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as its ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Studies have shown that TTA can influence metabolic processes, lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial function.

TTA's Activation of PPARs and Metabolic Effects

  • TTA activates PPAR subtypes, especially PPARalpha and PPARgamma, with chain lengths up to C14 showing increased activation effects.
  • Alpha-methylated derivatives of TTA showed stronger activation of PPARalpha, enhancing the expression of target genes involved in fatty acid metabolism.
  • TTA's lipid-lowering effects in the liver do not require PPARalpha, with PPARdelta activation also playing a key role.
  • In CaCo-2 cells, TTA reduces triacylglycerol secretion without affecting the synthesis induced by oleic acid or the general secretory process.

TTA in Health Conditions

  • TTA improves heart function in type 2 diabetic mice and increases the breakdown of fatty acids in the liver without PPARalpha.
  • While it reduces triacylglycerol secretion in CaCo-2 cells, TTA does not alter apolipoprotein B secretion or microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein activity.
  • TTA has been demonstrated to reduce plasma triacylglycerol levels and positively alter fatty acid composition in the liver of mice with chronic inflammation.
  • Topical application of TTA did not show significant improvement in plaque psoriasis symptoms in a small-scale study.
  • In cardiac function studies, TTA reduced efficiency in normal mice but improved tolerance to low oxygen conditions in diabetic mice.

TTA's Potential Therapeutic Uses

  • TTA may have therapeutic potential for inflammatory disorders, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases due to its various effects on lipid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation.
  • Long-term treatment with TTA alters heart fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism, with distinct effects from those in the liver.
  • TTA induces mitochondrial biogenesis and enhances respiration in rat hepatocytes, not solely through PPAR activation.
  • TTA's hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory properties could be beneficial for psoriasis patients, as it lowers lipid levels and inflammatory markers.
  • In hypertensive rats, TTA effectively reduced high blood pressure and prevented organ damage while improving lipid metabolism.
  • Combining TTA with a cholesterol-lowering diet showed promising results in managing dyslipidemia and inflammation in HIV patients on HAART.


TTA is a fatty acid analogue with significant effects on fatty acid metabolism, PPAR activation, and potential benefits for various health conditions. However, further research is needed to confirm its therapeutic efficacy and safety.


  1. Sulfur-substituted and alpha-methylated fatty acids as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activators
  2. A pan-PPAR ligand induces hepatic fatty acid oxidation in PPARalpha-/- mice possibly through PGC-1 mediated PPARdelta coactivation
  3. Tetradecylthioacetic acid (a 3-thia fatty acid) impairs secretion of oleic acid-induced triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in CaCo-2 cells
  4. Cardioprotective effect of the PPAR ligand tetradecylthioacetic acid in type 2 diabetic mice
  5. Tetradecylthioacetic acid (a 3-thia fatty acid) decreases triacylglycerol secretion in CaCo-2 cells
  6. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation and steatohepatitis
  7. Effect of topical PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma agonists on plaque psoriasis. A pilot study
  8. Leukocyte infiltration and mRNA expression of IL-20, IL-8 and TNF-R P60 in psoriatic skin is driven by TNF-alpha
  9. Topical treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis: an abridged Cochrane systematic review
  10. Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid or fish oil is associated with increased cardiac content of n-3 fatty acids in rat
  11. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is associated with mTOR regulation in hepatocytes of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA)
  12. Impact of cytochrome P450 system on lipoprotein metabolism. Effect of abnormal fatty acids (3-thia fatty acids)
  13. Tetradecylthioacetic acid increases hepatic mitochondrial β-oxidation and alters fatty acid composition in a mouse model of chronic inflammation
  14. Macrophage-specific expression of class A scavenger receptors in LDL receptor(-/-) mice decreases atherosclerosis and changes spleen morphology
  15. Long term treatment with tetradecylthioacetic acid improves the antioxidant status in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats
  16. Anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic effects of the modified fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid in psoriasis--a pilot study
  17. Prevention of hypertension and organ damage in 2-kidney, 1-clip rats by tetradecylthioacetic acid
  18. Lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy
  19. Cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activation causes increased fatty acid oxidation, reducing efficiency and post-ischaemic functional loss
  20. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by a 3-thia fatty acid reduces triacylglycerol secretion in cultured rat hepatocytes
  21. Tetradecylthioacetic acid attenuates dyslipidaemia in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, possibly by dual PPAR-alpha/delta activation and increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation
  22. Macrophage scavenger receptor class A: A multifunctional receptor in atherosclerosis
  23. Docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids are differently metabolized in rat liver during mitochondria and peroxisome proliferation
  24. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance
  25. Dietary supplementation of tetradecylthioacetic acid increases feed intake but reduces body weight gain and adipose depot sizes in rats fed on high-fat diets
  26. Metabolic effects of thia fatty acids
  27. Pharmacology and safety of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA): phase-1 study

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