Sulforaphane - NutraHacker Journal Club

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Sulforaphane - role in aging and neurodegeneration - PMC (

SFN activates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses by inducing Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting NF-κB. It also has an epigenetic effect by inhibiting HDAC and DNA methyltransferases and modifies mitochondrial dynamics. Moreover, SFN preserves proteome homeostasis (proteostasis) by activating the proteasome, which has been shown to lead to increased cellular lifespan and prevent neurodegeneration.

The Molecular Effects of Sulforaphane and Capsaicin on Metabolism upon Androgen and Tip60 Activation of Androgen Receptor - PMC (

Sulforaphane and capsaicin decreased nuclear AR, prostate specific antigen and Bcl-XL levels, and cell proliferation induced by androgen and Tip60 in LNCaP cells.

Efficacy of Sulforaphane in Neurodegenerative Diseases - PMC (

SFN is produced by the conversion of glucoraphanin through the enzyme myrosinase, which leads to the formation of this isothiocyanate. SFN is especially characterized by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties, and for this reason, it aroused the interest of researchers. Therefore, thanks to its beneficial effects, SFN could be useful as a supplement to counteracting neurodegenerative diseases.

Sulforaphane Suppresses the Nicotine-Induced Expression of the Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 via Inhibiting ROS-Mediated AP-1 and NF-κB Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells - PMC (

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in gastric cancer metastasis. Nicotine, a psychoactive alkaloid found in tobacco, is associated with the development of gastric cancer. Here, we found that sulforaphane suppresses the nicotine-mediated induction of MMP-9 in human gastric cancer cells.

Sulforaphane improves dysregulated metabolic profile and inhibits leptin-induced VSMC proliferation: Implications toward suppression of neointima formation after arterial injury in western diet-fed obese mice - PubMed (

Sulforaphane (SFN), a dietary phase-2 enzyme inducer that mitigates cellular oxidative stress through nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation, is known to exhibit beneficial effects in the vessel wall. For instance, it inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a major event in atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty.

Nrf2 and its dependent autophagy activation cooperatively counteract ferroptosis to alleviate acute liver injury - PubMed (

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator of cellular antioxidant response and can counteract ferroptosis by inducing autophagy and targeting genes involved in iron metabolism and glutathione (GSH) synthesis/metabolism. The results showed that SFN could activate Nrf2 signaling pathway and its downstream target genes, promote cell autophagy, and then combat ferroptosis to alleviate liver injury. Activation of Nrf2 not only upregulates the expression of SLC7A11, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX-4) and autophagy-related proteins, but also destroys the binding of SLC7A11 and BECN1 by inducing autophagy, thereby promoting SLC7A11 membrane transfer and GSH synthesis, and finally suppressing ferroptosis.

Sulforaphane-driven reprogramming of gut microbiome and metabolome ameliorates the progression of hyperuricemia - PubMed (

Sulforaphane could lower uric acid by decreasing urate synthesis and increasing renal urate excretion in hyperuricemic rats (P<0.05). We identified succinic acid and oxoglutaric acid as critical host-gut microbiome co-metabolites. Moreover, sulforaphane improved the diversity of microbial ecosystems and functions, as well as metabolic control of the kidney. Notably, sulforaphane exerted its renoprotective effect through epigenetic modification of Nrf2 and interaction between gut microbiota and epigenetic modification in hyperuricemic rats.

Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane - PMC (

Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared to vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice.

Sulforaphane and Other Nutrigenomic Nrf2 Activators: Can the Clinician's Expectation Be Matched by the Reality? - PMC (

Broccoli-derived sulforaphane emerges as a phytochemical with this capability, with oral doses capable of favourably modifying genes associated with chemoprevention. Compared with widely used phytochemical-based supplements like curcumin, silymarin, and resveratrol, sulforaphane more potently activates Nrf2 to induce the expression of a battery of cytoprotective genes. By virtue of its lipophilic nature and low molecular weight, sulforaphane displays significantly higher bioavailability than the polyphenol-based dietary supplements that also activate Nrf2.

Accumulation of Sulforaphane and Alliin in Human Prostate Tissue - PMC (

In this study, we tested whether consuming glucoraphanin derived from broccoli seeds and alliin derived from garlic resulted in the occurrence of these potential bioactive compounds in the prostate, which may contribute to our understanding of the putative protective effects of these dietary components. Sulforaphane occurred in significantly higher levels in the prostate tissue (both within the transition and peripheral zone) of men consuming the glucoraphanin containing supplements (p < 0.0001) compared to men not consuming these supplements.

NRF2 and FXR dual signaling pathways cooperatively regulate the effects of oleanolic acid on cholestatic liver injury - PubMed (

The effect of OA on cholestatic liver injury is closely related to the simultaneous activation of NRF2 and FXR dual signaling pathways, in which NRF2 signaling pathway plays a more important role. The dual signaling pathways of NRF2 and FXR cooperatively regulate bile acid metabolic homeostasis through the interaction mechanism with β-catenin/P300.

Nrf2 regulates the arginase 1+ microglia phenotype through the initiation of TREM2 transcription, ameliorating depression-like behavior in mice

The expression of the triggering receptor on myeloid cell-2 (TREM2) knockdown in microglia from the lateral habenula (LHb) reportedly induces depression-like behaviors in mice. However, the key molecular mechanism that mediates major depressive disorder (MDD) pathogenesis remains elusive. We herein show that Nrf2 regulates TREM2 transcription and effects TREM2 mRNA and protein expression. The activation of Nrf2 by sulforaphane (Nrf2 activator) increases the microglial arginase 1+ phenotype by initiating TREM2 transcription in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ameliorates depression-like behavior in CSDS mice. The knockout of Nrf2 decreases TREM2 and the microglial arginase 1+ phenotype in the mPFC of Nrf2 KO mice with depression-like behavior. Downregulating TREM2 expression decreases the microglial arginase 1+ phenotype in the mPFC, resulting in depression-like behavior in SFN-treated CSDS mice. Finally, the knockout of Nrf2 and downregulation of TREM2 expression decreases the microglial arginase 1+ phenotype in the mPFC of Nrf2 KO mice and SFN-treated CSDS mice were associated with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling pathway. These data indicate that alterations in the interaction between Nrf2 and TREM2 may play a role in the pathophysiology of depression-like behavior in mice.

Phytochemicals in Skeletal Muscle Health: Effects of Curcumin (from Curcuma longa Linn) and Sulforaphane (from Brassicaceae) on Muscle Function, Recovery and Therapy of Muscle Atrophy

The mobility of the human body depends on, among other things, muscle health, which can be affected by several situations, such as aging, increased oxidative stress, malnutrition, cancer, and the lack or excess of physical exercise, among others. Genetic, metabolic, hormonal, and nutritional factors are intricately involved in maintaining the balance that allows proper muscle function and fiber recovery; therefore, the breakdown of the balance among these elements can trigger muscle atrophy. The study from the nutrigenomic perspective of nutritional factors has drawn wide attention recently; one of these is the use of certain compounds derived from foods and plants known as phytochemicals, to which various biological activities have been described and attributed in terms of benefiting health in many respects. This work addresses the effect that the phytochemicals curcumin from Curcuma longa Linn and sulforaphane from Brassicaceae species have shown to exert on muscle function, recovery, and the prevention of muscle atrophy, and describes the impact on muscle health in general. In the same manner, there are future perspectives in research on novel compounds as potential agents in the prevention or treatment of medical conditions that affect muscle health.

The Anticancer Potential of Plant-Derived Nutraceuticals via the Modulation of Gene Expression

Current studies show that approximately one-third of all cancer-related deaths are linked to diet and several cancer forms are preventable with balanced nutrition, due to dietary compounds being able to reverse epigenetic abnormalities. An appropriate diet in cancer patients can lead to changes in gene expression and enhance the efficacy of therapy. It has been demonstrated that nutraceuticals can act as powerful antioxidants at the cellular level as well as anticarcinogenic agents. This review is focused on the best studies on worldwide-available plant-derived nutraceuticals: curcumin, resveratrol, sulforaphane, indole-3-carbinol, quercetin, astaxanthin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and lycopene. These compounds have an enhanced effect on epigenetic changes such as histone modification via HDAC (histone deacetylase), HAT (histone acetyltransferase) inhibition, DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) inhibition, and non-coding RNA expression. All of these nutraceuticals are reported to positively modulate the epigenome, reducing cancer incidence. Furthermore, the current review addresses the issue of the low bioavailability of nutraceuticals and how to overcome the drawbacks related to their oral administration. Understanding the mechanisms by which nutraceuticals influence gene expression will allow their incorporation into an "epigenetic diet" that could be further capitalized on in the therapy of cancer.

Sulforaphane promotes white matter plasticity and improves long-term neurological outcomes after ischemic stroke via the Nrf2 pathway

Aims: Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is a common condition following ischemic stroke. Neuronal loss and white matter injury are among the most common neuropathological characteristics in patients with PSCI. The present study tested our hypothesis that activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) reduces neuronal loss, white matter injury, and neurobehavioral deficits in a mouse model of PSCI and investigated the underlying protective mechanisms. Methods: PSCI was modeled in wildtype (WT) and Nrf2 knockout (KO), male and female mice, by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO), with intraperitoneal injections of the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane (Sfn) or vehicle. Long-term (35 days) sensorimotor and cognitive performances, white matter integrity, oligodendrogenesis by BrdU incorporation, and neurite sprouting using anterograde tract-tracing were evaluated up to 35 days after dMCAO. Neuronal apoptosis was evaluated three days after dMCAO. In vitro, primary neuronal cultures were applied to validate the in vivo findings. Results: Compared to vehicle-injected controls, Sfn treatment improved long-term sensorimotor and cognitive deficits after dMCAO in WT male and female mice. Sfn-treated WT mice also had less myelin loss/axonal injury and showed evidence of Nrf2 activation. Sfn treatment failed to provide the same level of protection in Nrf2 KO mice. Mechanistically, the ability of Sfn to reduce neuronal death after ischemia in vitro and in vivo, augment axonal sprouting and enhance oligodendrogenesis after dMCAO was dependent on Nrf2 activation. Conclusion: Our results support that Nrf2 is critical for Sfn-afforded neuroprotection after ischemic stroke. Thus, targeting Nrf2 may be a promising strategy for the treatment of PSCI.

Modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress via sulforaphane-mediated AMPK upregulation against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health concern. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunctions may be targeted to prevent the progress of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Sulforaphane (SFN), a sulfur-containing compound that is abundant in broccoli florets, seeds, and sprouts, has been reported to have beneficial effects on attenuating metabolic diseases. In light of this, the present study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which SFN ameliorated ER stress, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance - induced by a high-fat diet and ionizing radiation (IR) in rats. In our study, the rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, HFD, HFD + SFN, HFD + IR, and HFD + IR + SFN groups. After the last administration of SFN, liver and blood samples were taken. As a result, the lipid profile, liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, IL-1β, adipokines (leptin and resistin), and PI3K/AKT protein levels, as well as the mRNA gene expression of ER stress markers (IRE-1, sXBP-1, PERK, ATF4, and CHOP), fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). Interestingly, SFN treatment modulated the levels of proinflammatory cytokine including IL-1β, metabolic indices (lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and adipokines), and ER stress markers in HFD and HFD + IR groups. SFN also increases the expression of PPAR-α and AMPK genes in the livers of HFD and HFD + IR groups. Meanwhile, the gene expression of FAS and CHOP was significantly attenuated in the SFN-treated groups. Our results clearly show that SFN inhibits liver toxicity induced by HFD and IR by ameliorating the ER stress events in the liver tissue through the upregulation of AMPK and PPAR-α accompanied by downregulation of FAS and CHOP gene expression.

Sulforaphane alleviates high fat diet-induced insulin resistance via AMPK/Nrf2/GPx4 axis

Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural antioxidant extracted from the cruciferous vegetables. Recent study reported that SFN exhibits excellent anti-diabetic effects, however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of SFN on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and potential mechanism. SFN was found to effectively reduce body weight, fasting blood glucose and hyperlipidemia, and improve liver function in HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, SFN effectively increased glucose uptake and improved insulin signaling in palmitic acid (PA)-induced HepG2 cells. SFN also led to increased expression of antioxidant genes downstream of Nrf2 and decreased accumulation of lipid peroxides MDA and 4-HNE, both in vivo and in vitro. Further studies revealed that SFN significantly reduced glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) inactivation-mediated oxidative stress by activating the AMPK and Nrf2 signaling pathways. In PA-induced HepG2 cells and flies, the alleviation of insulin resistance by SFN was diminished by GPx4 inhibitor. Taken together, SFN ameliorated HFD-induced insulin resistance by activating the AMPK-Nrf2-GPx4 pathway, providing new insights into SFN as a therapeutic compound for the alleviation of insulin resistance.

Anti-Obesogenic Effects of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) Sprouts and Myrosinase-Rich Mustard ( Sinapis alba L.) Seeds In Vitro and In Vivo

Glucoraphanin (GRA), a glucosinolate particularly abundant in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) sprouts, can be converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by the enzyme myrosinase. Herein, we investigated the anti-obesogenic effects of broccoli sprout powder (BSP), mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seed powder (MSP), and sulforaphane-rich MSP-BSP mixture powder (MBP) in bisphenol A (BPA)-induced 3T3-L1 cells and obese C57BL/6J mice. In vitro experiments showed that MBP, BSP, and MSP have no cytotoxic effects. Moreover, MBP and BSP inhibited the lipid accumulation in BPA-induced 3T3-L1 cells. In BPA-induced obese mice, BSP and MBP treatment inhibited body weight gain and ameliorated dyslipidemia. Furthermore, our results showed that BSP and MBP could activate AMPK, which increases ACC phosphorylation, accompanied by the upregulation of lipolysis-associated proteins (UCP-1 and CPT-1) and downregulation of adipogenesis-related proteins (C/EBP-α, FAS, aP2, PPAR-γ, and SREBP-1c), both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, MBP exerted a greater anti-obesogenic effect than BSP. Taken together, these findings indicate that BSP and MBP could inhibit BPA-induced adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis by increasing the expression of the proteins related to lipid metabolism and lipolysis, effectively treating BPA-induced obesity. Thus, BSP and MBP can be developed as effective anti-obesogenic drugs.

Supplementation of the Diet by Exogenous Myrosinase via Mustard Seeds to Increase the Bioavailability of Sulforaphane in Healthy Human Subjects after the Consumption of Cooked Broccoli

Scope: Broccoli contains glucosinolate glucoraphanin, which, in the presence of myrosinase, can hydrolyze to isothiocyanate sulforaphane, reported to have anticarcinogenic activity. However, the myrosinase enzyme is denatured on cooking. Addition of an active source of myrosinase, such as from powdered mustard seed, to cooked Brassica vegetables can increase the release of health beneficial isothiocyanates; however, this has not previously been proven in vivo. Methods and results: The concentration of sulforaphane metabolite (sulforaphane N-acetyl-l-cysteine [SF-NAC]) in 12 healthy adults after the consumption of 200 g cooked broccoli, with and without 1 g powdered brown mustard, was studied in a randomized crossover design. During the 24-h period following the consumption of the study sample, all urine was collected. SF-NAC content was assayed by HPLC. When study subjects ingested cooked broccoli alone, mean urinary SF-NAC excreted was 9.8 ± 5.1 μmol per g creatinine, and when cooked broccoli was consumed with mustard powder, this increased significantly to 44.7 ± 33.9 μmol SF-NAC per gram creatinine. Conclusion: These results conclude that when powdered brown mustard is added to cooked broccoli, the bioavailability of sulforaphane is over four times greater than that from cooked broccoli ingested alone.

Isothiocyanate from Broccoli, Sulforaphane, and Its Properties

Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate occurring in stored form as glucoraphanin in cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, and kale, and at high levels in broccoli especially in broccoli sprouts. Glucoraphanin requires the plant enzyme myrosinase for converting it into sulforaphane. Sulforaphane is metabolized through mercapturic acid pathway, being conjugated with glutathione and undergoes further biotransformation, yielding metabolites. Sulforaphane is extensively investigated and is in the interest in medicine for its health benefits. It has been shown that sulforaphane may protect against various types of cancer, may also decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, and help in autism and osteoporosis. Our review offers a short summary of interesting properties of sulforaphane. Both the in vitro and in vivo methods/models and clinical studies are mentioned.

Sulforaphane Increase Mitochondrial Biogenesis-Related Gene Expression in the Hippocampus and Suppresses Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Mice

Sulforaphane (SFN) is a potent activator of the transcriptional factor, Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-Related factor 2 (NRF2). SFN and its precursor, glucoraphanin (sulforaphane glucosinolate, SGS), have been shown to ameliorate cognitive function in clinical trials and in vivo studies. However, the effects of SGS on age-related cognitive decline in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAMP8) is unknown. In this study, we determined the preventive potential of SGS on age-related cognitive decline. One-month old SAMP8 mice or control SAM resistance 1 (SAMR1) mice were fed an ad libitum diet with or without SGS-containing broccoli sprout powder (0.3% w/w SGS in diet) until 13 months of age. SGS significantly improved long-term memory in SAMP8 at 12 months of age. Interestingly, SGS increased hippocampal mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), which are master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, both in SAMR1 and SAMP8 at 13 months of age. Furthermore, mRNAs for nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complex enzymes, but not mitochondrial DNA itself, were increased by SGS in SAMP8 mice. These results suggest that SGS prevents age-related cognitive decline by maintaining mitochondrial function in senescence-accelerated mice.

Therapeutic effects of sulforaphane in ulcerative colitis: effect on antioxidant activity, mitochondrial biogenesis and DNA polymerization

Objectives: Ulcerative colitis (UC), an inflammatory bowel disease, affects mucosal lining of colon leading to inflammation and ulcers. Sulforaphane is a natural compound obtained from cruciferous vegetables. We aimed to investigate potential therapeutic effects of sulforaphane in experimentally induced UC in rats through affection antioxidant activity, mitochondrial biogenesis and DNA polymerization. Methods: UC was induced in rats via an intracolonic single administration of 2 ml of 4% acetic acid. UC rats were treated with 15 mg/kg sulforaphane. Samples of colon were used to investigate gene expression and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), cyclin D1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results: UC showed dark distorted Goblet cell nucleus with disarranged mucus granules and no distinct brush border with atypical microvilli. All morphological changes were improved by treating with sulforaphane. Finally, treatment with sulforaphane significantly increased expression of PGC-1, TFAM, Nrf2 and HO-1 associated with reduction in expression of mTOR, cyclin D1 and PCNA. Conclusion: Sulforaphane could cure UC in rats. The protective activity can be explained by enhancing antioxidant activity, elevating mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibiting DNA polymerization.

Oxidative Stress and NRF2/KEAP1/ARE Pathway in Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD): New Perspectives

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most debilitating chronic diseases worldwide, with increased prevalence and incidence. In addition to its macrovascular damage, through its microvascular complications, such as Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD), DM further compounds the quality of life of these patients. Considering DKD is the main cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in developed countries, extensive research is currently investigating the matrix of DKD pathophysiology. Hyperglycemia, inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are the main mechanisms behind this disease. By generating pro-inflammatory factors (e.g., IL-1,6,18, TNF-α, TGF-β, NF-κB, MCP-1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1) and the activation of diverse pathways (e.g., PKC, ROCK, AGE/RAGE, JAK-STAT), they promote a pro-oxidant state with impairment of the antioxidant system (NRF2/KEAP1/ARE pathway) and, finally, alterations in the renal filtration unit. Hitherto, a wide spectrum of pre-clinical and clinical studies shows the beneficial use of NRF2-inducing strategies, such as NRF2 activators (e.g., Bardoxolone methyl, Curcumin, Sulforaphane and their analogues), and other natural compounds with antioxidant properties in DKD treatment. However, limitations regarding the lack of larger clinical trials, solubility or delivery hamper their implementation for clinical use. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss DKD mechanisms, especially oxidative stress (OS) and NRF2/KEAP1/ARE involvement, while highlighting the potential of therapeutic approaches that target DKD via OS.

Effects of sulforaphane intake on processing speed and negative moods in healthy older adults: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

Background: Recent studies have reported that sulforaphane (SFN) intake with cognitive training had positive effects on cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown whether SFN intake alone has beneficial effects on cognition as well as mood. We investigated whether a SFN intake intervention improved cognitive performance and mood states in healthy older adults. Methods: In a 12-week, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT), we randomly assigned 144 older adults to a SFN group or a placebo group. We asked the participants to take a supplement (SFN or placebo) for 12 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions, mood states, and biomarkers before and after the intervention period. Results: The SFN group showed improvement in processing speed and a decrease in negative mood compared to the placebo group. In addition, the SFN group exhibited a higher SFN-N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) level compared to the placebo group. However, there were no significant results in other biomarkers of oxidant stress, inflammation, or neural plasticity. Discussion: These results indicate that nutrition interventions using SFN can have positive effects on cognitive functioning and mood in healthy older adults.

Sulforaphane Ameliorates the Severity of Psoriasis and SLE by Modulating Effector Cells and Reducing Oxidative Stress

Background: Sulforaphane, which is found in cruciferous vegetables, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumour activities. However, whether sulforaphane has therapeutic effects on inflammatory or autoimmune skin diseases, including psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is unclear. Methods: The therapeutic effects of sulforaphane were analyzed in Imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. In IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mice treated with sulforaphane (55.3 and 110.6 μmol/kg) or vehicle control, the pathological phenotypes were assessed by the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score, haematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E) and quantifying of acanthosis and dermal inflammatory cell infiltration. The proportions of T cell subsets in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spleens were examined by flow cytometry. In MRL/lpr mice treated with sulforaphane (82.9 μmol/kg) or vehicle control, mortality and proteinuria were observed, and the glomerular pathology was examined by H&E staining. C3 and IgG depositions in kidney sections were examined by immunofluorescence staining. The proportions of plasma cells, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, neutrophils and dendritic cells in the dLNs and spleens were examined by flow cytometry. Finally, we examined the Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay and the expression of Prdx1, Nqo1, Hmox1, and Gss by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results: Sulforaphane ameliorated the skin lesions in IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mice and the renal damage in lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. In IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mice, sulforaphane reduced the proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells and increased the expression of antioxidant gene Prdx1. In lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice, sulforaphane increased the lifespan and the expression of Prdx1, and decreased the proportions of plasma cells, Tfh cells, neutrophils, and dendritic cells in the dLNs and spleens and the concentration of MDA. Conclusion: Sulforaphane has significant therapeutic effects on IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mice and lupus-like MRL/Lpr mice by reducing inflammatory and autoimmune-related cells and oxidative stress. These findings provide new evidence for developing natural products to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

Frugal Chemoprevention: Targeting Nrf2 with Foods Rich in Sulforaphane

With the properties of efficacy, safety, tolerability, practicability and low cost, foods containing bioactive phytochemicals are gaining significant attention as elements of chemoprevention strategies against cancer. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate produced by cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is found to be a highly promising chemoprevention agent against not only variety of cancers such as breast, prostate, colon, skin, lung, stomach or bladder carcinogenesis, but also cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. For reasons of experimental exigency, pre-clinical studies have focused principally on sulforaphane itself, while clinical studies have relied on broccoli sprout preparations rich in either sulforaphane or its biogenic precursor, glucoraphanin. Substantive subsequent evaluation of sulforaphane pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has been undertaken using either pure compound or food matrices. Sulforaphane affects multiple targets in cells. One key molecular mechanism of action for sulforaphane entails activation of the Nrf2- Keap1 signaling pathway although other actions contribute to the broad spectrum of efficacy in different animal models. This review summarizes the current status of pre-clinical chemoprevention studies with sulforaphane and highlights the progress and challenges for the application of foods rich in sulforaphane and/or glucoraphanin in the arena of clinical chemoprevention.

Sulforaphane regulates Nrf2-mediated antioxidant activity and downregulates TGF-β1/Smad pathways to prevent radiation-induced muscle fibrosis

Aims: This study aimed to examine the efficacy of sulforaphane (SFN) in preventing radiation-induced muscle fibrosis (RIMF) and the potential role in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant stress. Main methods: The RIMF model was established by a single irradiation of the left thigh of C57BL/6 J mice, and the mice were then randomly divided into control, SFN, irradiation (IR), and IR + SFN (IR/SFN) groups. The serum and skeletal muscle were collected eight weeks after irradiation, and changes in oxidative stress and muscle fibrosis were detected. Key findings: The IR group showed a more obvious skeletal muscle fiber atrophy, significantly higher number of collagen fibers, and higher inflammatory cell infiltration compared to control group. Compared to the IR group, the IR/SFN group had orderly arranged muscle fibers, decreased collagen fibers, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In addition, compared with the control group, the expression of oxidative stress-related indexes was significantly increased, accompanied by activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF-β)/Smad pathway and its downstream fibrogenic molecules in the skeletal muscle of the IR group. After SFN intervention, the above indices were significantly restored. Furthermore, SFN induced the upregulation of Nrf2, activation of AKT, and inhibition of GSK-3β and Fyn accumulation. Significance: These results revealed that Nrf2 plays a central role in protecting against RIMF. Furthermore, SFN prevents RIMF by activating Nrf2 via the AKT/GSK-3β/Fyn pathway.

Novel Broccoli Sulforaphane-Based Analogues Inhibit the Progression of Pancreatic Cancer without Side Effects

The naturally occurring isothiocyanate sulforaphane, found in Brassicaceae vegetables, is promising in cancer treatment, e.g., by the normalization of enhanced levels of NF-κB-signaling in tumor stem cells. We chemically synthesized seven sulforaphane analogues by substitution of the sulfinyl group (S(O)) to either sulfimidoyl (S(NR)) or sulfonimidoyl (S (O) (NR)) groups, and characterized them in the cell lines of pancreatic cancer and several other tumor entities, including the NCI-60 cell panel. MTT and colony forming assays, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, microRNA arrays, bioinformatics, tumor xenotransplantation, and Kaplan Meier survival curves were performed. Compared to sulforaphane, the analogue SF102 was most efficient in inhibition of viability, colony formation, tumor growth, and the induction of apoptosis, followed by SF134. Side effects were not observed, as concluded from the body weight and liver histology of chick embryos and survival of C. elegans nematodes. Among 6659 differentially regulated microRNAs, miR29b-1-5p, and miR-27b-5p were downregulated by sulforaphane compared to controls, but upregulated by SF102 and SF134 compared to sulforaphane, suggesting differential signaling. Each substance was involved in the regulation of several NF-κB-related target genes. In conclusion, sulforaphane analogues are promising for the development of highly active new drugs in cancer treatment.

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