Lion's Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) - NutraHacker Journal Club

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Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values

Mushrooms are considered as nutritionally functional foods and source of physiologically beneficial medicines. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's Mane Mushroom or Hedgehog Mushroom, is an edible fungus, which has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine. This mushroom is rich in some physiologically important components, especially β-glucan polysaccharides, which are responsible for anti-cancer, immuno-modulating, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and neuro-protective activities of this mushroom. H. erinaceus has also been reported to have anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials. This review article has overviewed the recent advances in the research and study on H. erinaceus and discussed the potential health beneficial activities of this mushroom, with the recognition of bioactive compounds responsible for these medicinal properties.

Neuroregenerative potential of lion's mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (higher Basidiomycetes), in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury (review)

We present a model case study of the activity of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus fresh fruit bodies in promoting functional recovery following crush injury to the peroneal nerve in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The aim was to explore the possible use of this mushroom in nerve repair. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates/neuromuscular junction in extensor digitorum longus muscle of rats in treated groups developed better than in the negative control group. Akt cascade plays a major role in mediating neurotrophin-promoted cell survival, while MAPK cascade is involved in mediating neurite outgrowth. Immediate early gene expression was also involved in the cascade of events leading to regeneration.

Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers., a medicinal mushroom, activates peripheral nerve regeneration

Objective To study the ability of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats. The expression of protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways; and c-Jun and c-Fos genes were studied in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) whereas the activity of protein synthesis was assessed in peroneal nerves by immunohistochemical method. Results Peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the axonal site of injury and remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory afferent neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that DRG neurons ipsilateral to the crush injury in rats of treated groups expressed higher immunoreactivities for Akt, MAPK, c-Jun and c-Fos as compared with negative control group (P <0.05). Conclusion H. erinaceus is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration after injury.

Medicinal properties of Hericium erinaceus and its potential to formulate novel mushroom-based pharmaceuticals

Hericium erinaceus is an important mushroom with edible values and medicinal properties. Both the mycelium and the fruiting bodies contain many bioactive compounds with drug efficacy. Recent evidence demonstrates that it is helpful to various diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, immunoregulatory, and many types of cancer. Furthermore, emerging pieces of evidence have shown that different active molecules in H. erinaceus have different functions on different organs in different diseases via the different mechanisms. Drawing on current research results, this review mainly focuses on the therapeutic effects of H. erinaceus on various diseases of multiple physiological systems, including the nervous system, digestive system, circulatory system, and immune system.

Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health-Promoting Properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) Mushroom Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia and Their Bioactive Compounds

The culinary and medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is widely consumed in Asian countries, but apparently not in the United States, for its nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported beneficial properties, this overview surveys and consolidates the widely scattered literature on the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) of polysaccharides and secondary metabolites such as erinacines, hericerins, hericenones, resorcinols, steroids, mono- and diterpenes, and volatile aroma compounds, nutritional composition, food and industrial uses, and exceptional nutritional and health-promoting aspects of H. erinaceus. The described anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immunostimulating properties in cells, animals, and humans seem to be responsible for the multiple health-promoting properties. A wide range of research advances and techniques are described and evaluated. The collated information and suggestion for further research might facilitate and guide further studies to optimize the use of the whole mushrooms and about 70 characterized actual and potential bioactive secondary metabolites to help prevent or treat human chronic, cognitive, and neurological diseases.

Neurohealth Properties of Hericium erinaceus Mycelia Enriched with Erinacines

Hericium erinaceus, an ideal culinary-medicinal mushroom, has become a well-established candidate in promoting positive brain and nerve health-related activities by inducing the nerve growth factor from its bioactive ingredient. Among its active compounds, only erinacine A has confirmed pharmacological actions in the central nervous system in rats. Hence, this review has summarized the available information on the neurohealth properties of H. erinaceus mycelia enriched with erinacines, which may contribute to further research on the therapeutic roles of these mycelia. The safety of this mushroom has also been discussed. Although it has been difficult to extrapolate the in vivo studies to clinical situations, preclinical studies have shown that there can be improvements in ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression if H. erinaceus mycelia enriched with erinacines are included in daily meals.

Erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelia promotes longevity in Drosophila melanogaster and aged mice

Erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelia is a well-established potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders. Two hundred D. melanogaster and 80 SAMP8 mice of both sexes were randomly divided into four groups and were administered with either the standard, low-dose, mid-dose, or high-dose erinacine A-enriched H. erinaceus mycelia. After treatment, the lifespan was measured in D. melanogaster, and the lifespan, food intake and oxidative damage were evaluated in SAMP8 mice. Moreover, erinacine A-enriched H. erinaceus mycelia decreased TBARS levels and induced the anti-oxidative enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Together, these findings suggest that erinacine A-enriched H. erinaceus mycelia supplement could promote longevity, mediated partly through the induction of endogenous antioxidants enzymes.

Liver and Brain Protective Effect of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Residue of Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), on D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mice

This work describes the preparation of sulfated Hericium erinaceus residue polysaccharides (SHRPs) and investigates their antioxidant and antiaging effects on D-galactose-induced aging mice. The results indicated that the degree of SO42- substitution was 0.47 ± 0.22 for SHRPs. In vitro analysis and in vivo animal experiments manifested that SHRPs could alleviate aging properties by scavenging radicals, elevating enzyme activities, and reducing malondialde-hyde content, thus improving serum biochemical indices and enhancing immunological activity. Liver and brain injuries of mice could be remitted by SHRP interventions. Structural characteristics of SHRPs in this work were elucidated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the results suggest that SHRPs could be used as an effective dietary supplement and functional food for prevention of aging and age-related diseases.

Four Weeks of Hericium erinaceus Supplementation Does Not Impact Markers of Metabolic Flexibility or Cognition

Hericium erinaceus (HE), also known as Lion's Mane mushroom, has been found to enhance cognition and metabolic flexibility in various animal models. Twenty-four participants completed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to analyze substrate oxidation rates and markers of cardiorespiratory fitness. Participants were stratified into two groups, receiving either 10 g of HE per day or placebo for 4-weeks in the form of two muffins identical in taste and appearance. Repeated-measures analysis of variance were conducted to evaluate potential interactions or main effects. Due to the limited research on HE supplementation, future research is needed to establish an effective supplement dose and duration for potential physiological changes to be observed in humans.

Ameliorating Effect of the Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus on Depressive-Like Behavior in Ovariectomized Rats

Estrogen deficiency during menopause causes a variety of neurological symptoms, including depression. The edible Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull. HE), is a medicinal mushroom that has the potential for a neuroprotective effect and ameliorating neurological diseases, such as depression, anxiety, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the ameliorating effect of HE on menopausal symptoms is not well understood. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is expressed in the brain, and activation of ERβ ameliorates menopausal depressive symptoms. Notably, depressive-like behavior in OVX rats evaluated in forced swim test was reduced by administration of not only E2 but also HE for 92 d. Long-term activation of ERα increases the risk of breast and uterine cancers.

Lion's Mane Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. Suppresses H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage and LPS-Induced Inflammation in HT22 Hippocampal Neurons and BV2 Microglia

Oxidative stress and inflammation in neuron-glia system are key factors in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. As synthetic drugs may cause side effects, natural products have gained recognition for the prevention or management of diseases. This was accompanied by significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p < 0.05) and improvement of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) (p < 0.05) and glutathione (GSH) content (p < 0.01). HE-ETH also significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced nitric oxide (NO) level in LPS-treated BV2 indicating an anti-inflammatory activity in the microglia. These findings demonstrated HE-ETH maybe a potential neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent in neuron-glia environment.

Neuroprotective Effects of Erinacine A on an Experimental Model of Traumatic Optic Neuropathy

Erinacine A (EA), a natural neuroprotectant, is isolated from a Chinese herbal medicine, Hericium erinaceus. After ON crush, each group was fed orally every day for 14 days before being euthanized. Macrophage infiltration of ON was detected by immunostaining (immunohistochemistry) for ED1. The protein levels of phosphor-receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase1 (pRIP1), caspase 8 (Cas8), cleaved caspase 3 (cCas3), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, tumour necrosis factor receptor1 (TNFR1), interleukin (IL)-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were evaluated by Western blotting. The TUNEL assay showed that the standard EA dose-treated group and the double EA dose-treated group had significantly reduced numbers of apoptotic RGC by 10.0 and 15.6-fold, respectively, compared with the PBS-treated group (p < 0.05). EA treatment has neuroprotective effects on an experimental model of traumatic optic neuropathy by suppressing apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress to protect the RGCs from death as well as preserving the visual function.

In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Ethanolic Extracts of Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes)

Natural products are sources for exploratory development of new agents to combat the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Some edible fungi, such as the lion's mane mushroom, have been used for several thousand years to treat digestive diseases. H. erinaceus extract exhibited similar growth inhibitory effects on all H. pylori strains tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of about 2 mg/mL. H. pylori survival in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was decreased 3 logs by 2 mg/mL extract addition. H. erinaceus extract inhibited H. pylori adhesion capacity to human gastric epithelial cell line (ATCC CRL-1739) (AGS), even when H. erinaceus extract was added at a concentration that affected neither H. pylori nor AGS viability. H. pylori infection of AGS caused a 3-fold increase in host 8-oxoG, but this increase was abolished by including 2 mg/mL H. erinaceus extract.

Therapeutic Effect and Potential Mechanisms of Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), Mycelia in Submerged Culture on Ethanol-Induced Chronic Gastric Injury

Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible and medicinal mushroom traditionally used for the treatment of gastric injury in clinical practice. However, scientific evidence of its pharmacological activities has not yet been revealed. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect of HE mycelia in submerged culture on ethanol-induced chronic gastric injury (ECGI) in mice. The stomachs were removed for histopathological examination and inflammatory cytokines measurement. Meanwhile, total proteins of gastric tissue were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling analysis to quantitatively identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in three groups of animals.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), in Mice with Ulcerative Colitis

This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extracts of Hericium erinaceus in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model. Twenty C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 2% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water for 7 d to induce acute intestinal inflammation. Orally administrated ethanol extract of H. erinaceus (HEEE) (250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d body weight) could significantly (P < 0.05) improve body weight and colon length and decreased the intestinal bleeding of DSS-treated mice compared with DSS-treated mice not given HEEE. HEEE markedly reduced DSS-induced myeloperoxidase accumulation in colon tissues, attenuated histological change in the neutrophils and lymphocyte infiltration, and protected the mucosal epithelium. These results suggest that HEEE can be applied as a protective agent in the treatment of IBDs.

Lion's Mane, Hericium erinaceus and Tiger Milk, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Higher Basidiomycetes) Medicinal Mushrooms Stimulate Neurite Outgrowth in Dissociated Cells of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Retina: An In Vitro Study

Neurodegenerative disease is defined as a deterioration of the nervous system in the intellectual and cognitive capabilities. Studies have shown that out of 2000 different types of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms, only a few countable mushrooms have been selected until now for neurohealth activity. Hericium erinaceus is one of the well-established medicinal mushrooms for neuronal health. It has been documented for its neurite outgrowth potential in PC12 cells. H. erinaceus extract at 50 µg/mL triggered neurite outgrowth at 20.47%, 22.47%, and 21.70% in brain, spinal cord, and retinal cells.

Preclinical Bioavailability, Tissue Distribution, and Protein Binding Studies of Erinacine A, a Bioactive Compound from Hericium erinaceus Mycelia Using Validated LC-MS/MS Method

Erinacine A, derived from the mycelia of Hericium erinaceus, has attracted much attention due to its neuroprotective properties. However, very few studies have been conducted on the bioavailability, tissue distribution, and protein binding of erinacine A. This study aimed to investigate the bioavailability, tissue distribution, and protein binding of erinacine A in Sprague-Dawley rats. After oral administration (po) and intravenous administration (iv) of 2.381 g/kg BW of the H. erinaceus mycelia extract (equivalent to 50 mg/kg BW of erinacine A) and 5 mg/kg BW of erinacine A, respectively, the absolute bioavailability of erinacine A was estimated as 24.39%. Erinacine A was detected in brain at 1 h after oral dosing and reached the peak at 8 h. Protein binding assay showed unbound erinacine A fractions in brain to blood ratio is close to unity, supporting passive diffusion as the dominating transport. Feces was the major route for the elimination of erinacine A. This study is the first to show that erinacine A can penetrate the blood-brain barrier of rats by the means of passive diffusion and thus support the development of H. erinaceus mycelia for the improvement of neurohealth.

Erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer's disease-related pathologies in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice

Background The fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus has been demonstrated to possess anti-dementia activity in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and people with mild cognitive impairment. In this study, the effects of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelia (HE-My) on the pathological changes in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease are studied. It's worth noting that the attenuated portion of a plaque is the non-compact structure. The level of insulin-degrading enzyme was elevated by both HE-My and HE-Et in cerebral cortex. Conclusions These results highlight the therapeutic potential of HE-My and HE-Et on Alzheimer's disease.

Searching for a Longevity Food, We Bump into Hericium erinaceus Primordium Rich in Ergothioneine: The "Longevity Vitamin" Improves Locomotor Performances during Aging

Phenotypic frailty is characterized by a progressive decline in physical functioning. During ageing, morphological and functional alterations involve the brain, and chief theories involve oxidative stress, free radical accumulation, and reduced antioxidant defenses as the most implicated mechanisms. Among them, Hericium erinaceus (He) has been demonstrated to display a variety of physiological effects, including anti-aging properties. Thus, He represents an attractive natural source for developing novel medicines and functional foods, based on the identification of its active ingredients and metabolites. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in some oxidative stress markers (NOS2, COX2) paralleled by an increase in P53, showed in cerebellar cortex cells and fibres by immunohistochemistry.

Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorates In Vivo Progression of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related disorder that affects the joints and causes functional disability. Hericium erinaceus is a large edible mushroom with several known medicinal functions. However, the therapeutic effects of H. erinaceus in OA are unknown. In this study, data from Sprague-Dawley rats with knee OA induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) indicated that H. erinaceus mycelium improves ACLT-induced weight-bearing asymmetry and minimizes pain. In addition, H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in OA cartilage and synovium.

Erinacine A-Enriched Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Produces Antidepressant-Like Effects through Modulating BDNF/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling in Mice

Antidepressant-like effects of ethanolic extract of Hericium erinaceus (HE) mycelium enriched in erinacine A on depressive mice challenged by repeated restraint stress (RS) were examined. HE at 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight/day was orally given to mice for four weeks. After two weeks of HE administration, all mice except the control group went through with 14 days of RS protocol. Moreover, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were decreased in the stressed mice, while the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased. Additionally, HE was shown to activate the BDNF/TrkB/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways and block the NF-κB signals in mice. Therefore, erinacine A-enriched HE mycelium could be an attractive agent for the treatment of depressive disorders.

Prevention of Early Alzheimer's Disease by Erinacine A-Enriched Hericium erinaceus Mycelia Pilot Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of three H. erinaceus mycelia (EAHE) capsules (350 mg/capsule; containing 5 mg/g erinacine A active ingredient) per day for the treatment of patients with mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Cognitive assessments, ophthalmic examinations, biomarker collection, and neuroimaging were followed throughout the study period. In addition, EAHE group achieved a significantly better contrast sensitivity when compared to the placebo group. Using diffusion tensor imaging, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from the arcuate fasciculus region in the dominant hemisphere significantly increased in the placebo group while no significant difference was found in the EAHE group in comparison to their baselines. Conclusion Three 350 mg/g EAHE capsules intervention for 49 weeks demonstrated higher CASI, MMSE, and IADL scores and achieved a better contrast sensitivity in patients with mild AD when compared to the placebo group, suggesting that EAHE is safe, well-tolerated, and may be important in achieving neurocognitive benefits. Clinical trial registration, identifier NCT04065061.

Erinacine A-Enriched Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Delays Progression of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Senescence Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAMP8) Mice

There have been many reports on the neuroprotective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, in which the most well-known active compounds found are diterpenoids, such as erinacine A. Previously, erinacine A-enriched Hericeum erinaceus mycelium (EAHEM) was shown to decrease amyloid plaque aggregation and improve cognitive disability in Alzheimer's disease model APP/PS1 mice. However, its effects on brain aging have not yet been touched upon. Here, we used senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice as a model to elucidate the mechanism by which EAHEM delays the aging of the brain. Three-month-old SAMP8 mice were divided into three EAHEM dosage groups, administered at 108, 215 and 431 mg/kg/BW/day, respectively. We found that the lowest dose of 108 mg/kg/BW EAHEM was sufficient to significantly improve learning and memory in the passive and active avoidance tests.

Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorate anxiety induced by continuous sleep disturbance in vivo

Background Sleep disruption is a major public health issue and may increase the risk of mortality by ten-folds if an individual is sleeping less than 6 h per night. Recent in vivo reports have shown showed that erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium can modulate BDNF/TrkB/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways to induce an antidepressant-like effect. All sleep-wake recording was recorded for 24 h using electroencephalogram and electromyogram. The elevated-plus-maze and open-field tests were conducted to record the behavior activities. Results showed that administration with Hericium erinaceus mycelium at 150 mg/kg ameliorated the rodent anxiety (p < 0.05) and reversed the TST-induced NREM sleep disturbance in the dark period. Conclusion This is the first in vivo study suggesting that Hericium erinaceus mycelium has a dual potential role for anxiety relief through improving sleep disruptions.

Therapeutic Potential of Hericium erinaceus for Depressive Disorder

Depression is a common and severe neuropsychiatric disorder that is one of the leading causes of global disease burden. Although various anti-depressants are currently available, their efficacies are barely adequate and many have side effects. It has been used to treat cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Bioactive compounds extracted from the mycelia and fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus have been found to promote the expression of neurotrophic factors that are associated with cell proliferation such as nerve growth factors. Although antidepressant effects of H. erinaceus have not been validated and compared to the conventional antidepressants, based on the neurotrophic and neurogenic pathophysiology of depression, H. erinaceus may be a potential alternative medicine for the treatment of depression.

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