Eleuthero - NutraPedia

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Eleuthero (Siberian Ginseng)

1) Conditions Studied

Eleuthero has been studied for various conditions, including:

  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Common cold and flu prevention
  • Mental performance improvement
  • Physical performance enhancement
  • Stress and anxiety reduction
  • Immune system support

2) Efficacy in Treating Conditions

The effectiveness of Eleuthero in treating these conditions is mixed and often inconclusive. Some studies suggest potential benefits, while others do not show significant results. Therefore, more research is needed to determine its efficacy.

3) Health Benefits

Reported health benefits of Eleuthero include:

  • Increased endurance and stamina
  • Enhanced mental alertness
  • Boosted immune system function
  • Improved stress response

4) Downsides

While generally considered safe, Eleuthero can have downsides, including:

  • Potential interaction with certain medications
  • Mild side effects such as headache, insomnia, or irritability
  • Not recommended for people with hypertension, sleep apnea, or certain heart conditions

5) Genetic Variations Impact

The impact of Eleuthero on different genetic variations is not well-documented. As of now, there is limited research on its benefits or harms concerning specific genetic profiles. Caution is advised until more information becomes available.

Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus) Overview

Eleuthero, also known as Siberian Ginseng or Acanthopanax senticosus (AS), is a traditional Chinese herb recognized for its adaptogenic properties. Adaptogens are substances that aid the body's resistance to various types of stress.

Chemical Composition

The herb contains a range of active compounds including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, flavones, and phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, believed to be the most potent.

Pharmacological Effects

Eleuthero has been shown to have multiple pharmacological effects, such as anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective actions. These effects are attributed to its secondary compounds that exhibit activities like antioxidant, anticancer, cholesterol-lowering, immunostimulatory, and antibacterial effects.

Clinical Relevance and Trials

Despite its widespread use in herbal medicine, the term "adaptogen" is considered vague in Western medicine. Researchers advocate for the use of precise terminology to describe specific actions and recommend the name "Eleutherococcus" over "Siberian ginseng" to avoid confusion with true ginseng, Panax ginseng. Clinical trials have assessed Eleuthero's effectiveness in conditions such as chronic fatigue, with some studies showing benefits for specific subgroups of patients.

Research Findings

Various studies have explored Eleuthero's impact on physical endurance, blood sugar levels, immune response, and stress resilience. Pharmacokinetic studies have examined how compounds like Eleutheroside B and E are metabolized in the body. The pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory properties and neuroprotective actions, are attributed to the modulation of signaling pathways and protective enzyme expression in cells.


Eleuthero's adaptogenic qualities, along with its wide array of pharmacological effects, make it a subject of interest for its potential therapeutic applications. However, further research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and to standardize its use in clinical settings.


  1. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology
  2. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look
  3. Monograph. Eleutherococcus senticosus
  4. Deconstructing an adaptogen: Eleutherococcus senticosus
  5. Enrichment and purification of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin from Acanthopanax senticosus by macroporous resin
  6. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue
  7. Eleutherosides in aerial parts of Eleutherococcus species cultivated in Poland
  8. A new lignan glycoside from Eleutherococcus senticosus
  9. Phenolic compounds from stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus and their pharmacological effect in chronic swimming stressed rats
  10. Biologically active triterpenoid saponins from Acanthopanax senticosus
  11. Ciwujianosides D1 and C1: powerful inhibitors of histamine release induced by anti-immunoglobulin E from rat peritoneal mast cells
  12. Pancreatic lipase-inhibiting triterpenoid saponins from fruits of Acanthopanax senticosus
  13. Analysis of flavonoid constituents from leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus harms by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry
  14. Identification of isomeric dicaffeoylquinic acids from Eleutherococcus senticosus using HPLC-ESI/TOF/MS and 1H-NMR methods
  15. Simultaneous determination of Eleutheroside B and Eleutheroside E in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and its application in a pharmacokinetic study
  16. Pharmacokinetics of isofraxidin in rat plasma after oral administration of the extract of Acanthopanax senticosus using HPLC with solid phase extraction method
  17. Determination of eleutheroside E and eleutheroside B in rat plasma and tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography using solid-phase extraction and photodiode array detection
  18. Siberian ginseng (Eleutheroccus senticosus) effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity in normal volunteers
  19. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures
  20. Anti-depressant effects of aqueous extract from Acanthopanax senticosus in mice
  21. Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms on biogenic monoamine levels in the rat brain
  22. Acanthopanax senticosus Harms as a prophylactic for MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease in rats
  23. Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus harms (Siberian ginseng) activates NTS and SON/PVN in the rat brain
  24. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors
  25. Promotion of neuronal differentiation of PC12h cells by natural lignans and iridoids
  26. [Effect of eleutherococcus on short-term memory and visual perception in healthy humans]
  27. Adaptogens stimulate neuropeptide y and hsp72 expression and release in neuroglia cells
  28. Neuropeptide Y stimulation as primary target for preventive measures of maladaptative cardiovascular reactions in occupational chronic stress exposure
  29. Plasma neuropeptide Y concentrations in combat exposed veterans: relationship to trauma exposure, recovery from PTSD, and coping
  30. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones
  31. The effect of Eleutheroside E on behavioral alterations in murine sleep deprivation stress model
  32. Mechanisms underling the effects of adaptogens on erythropoiesis during paradoxical sleep deprivation
  33. Acanthopanax senticosus exerts neuroprotective effects through HO-1 signaling in hippocampal and microglial cells
  34. Anti-inflammatory activity of xanthohumol involves heme oxygenase-1 induction via NRF2-ARE signaling in microglial BV2 cells
  35. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of mollugin via up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 in mouse hippocampal and microglial cells
  36. Extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) induces Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression as a cytoprotective action in RAW 264.7 macrophages
  37. The inhibitory effect of raloxifene on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells is mediated through a ROS/p38 MAPK/CREB pathway to the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 independent of estrogen receptor
  38. Active components from Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) for protection of amyloid β(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy in cultured rat cortical neurons
  39. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss
  40. Neuroprotective effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus bark on transient global cerebral ischemia in rats
  41. Siberian ginseng reduces infarct volume in transient focal cerebral ischaemia in Sprague-Dawley rats
  42. The effects of A. senticosus supplementation on serum lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and lymphocyte DNA damage in postmenopausal women
  43. Attenuation of liver insoluble protein carbonyls: indicator of a longevity determinant?
  44. Carbonylated proteins are eliminated during reproduction in C. elegans
  45. The long lifespan of two bat species is correlated with resistance to protein oxidation and enhanced protein homeostasis
  46. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans
  47. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial
  48. Antiarrhythmic activity of phytoadaptogens in short-term ischemia-reperfusion of the heart and postinfarction cardiosclerosis
  49. Hypoglycemic effect of syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
  50. Release of acetylcholine by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats
  51. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to produce antihyperglycemic action in type 1-like diabetic rats
  52. Role of sympathetic tone in the loss of syringin-induced plasma glucose lowering action in conscious Wistar rats
  53. Effects of the Cellcultured Acanthopanax senticosus Extract on Antioxidative Defense System and Membrane Fluidity in the Liver of Type 2 Diabetes Mouse
  54. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice
  55. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus
  56. The effect of eight weeks of supplementation with Eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance capacity and metabolism in human
  57. [Effect of Ciwujia (Radix Acanthopanacis senticosus) preparation on exercise performance under constant endurance load for elderly]
  58. The influence of active components of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular defence and physical fitness in man
  59. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract on human physical working capacity
  60. Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance
  61. Effect of ENDUROX on metabolic responses to submaximal exercise
  62. The effects of ENDUROX on the physiological responses to stair-stepping exercise
  63. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance
  64. The effect of siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance
  65. Flow-cytometric studies with eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an immunomodulatory agent
  66. Water-soluble polysaccharide from Eleutherococcus senticosus stems attenuates fulminant hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide in mice
  67. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Acanthopanax senticosus extract in RAW264.7 macrophages
  68. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage
  69. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng
  70. Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus stem on mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis
  71. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of eleutherans A, B, C, D, E, F, and G: glycans of Eleutherococcus senticosus roots
  72. Immunopharmacological in vitro effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts
  73. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes
  74. Effect on prolactin secretion of Echinacea purpurea, hypericum perforatum and Eleutherococcus senticosus
  75. Effects of Jaoga-Yukmiwon(R), a Korean herbal medicine, on chondrocyte proliferation and longitudinal bone growth in adolescent male rats
  76. The herbal formula HT042 induces longitudinal bone growth in adolescent female rats
  77. Skeletal growth and IGF levels in rats after HT042 treatment
  78. Acanthopanax senticosus extracts have a protective effect on Drosophila gut immunity
  79. Synergy and Antagonism of Active Constituents of ADAPT-232 on Transcriptional Level of Metabolic Regulation of Isolated Neuroglial Cells
  80. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study of single dose effects of ADAPT-232 on cognitive functions
  81. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia
  82. A Herbal Composition of Scutellaria baicalensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus Shows Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effects in an Ex Vivo Human Mucosal Tissue Model
  83. Hypoglycemic effect and toxicity of Eleutherococcus senticosus following acute and chronic administration in mice

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