Cissus Quadrangularis - NutraHacker Journal Club

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Genotoxic effects of some foods & food components in Swiss mice

A number of commonly consumed foods and food components in south India were screened for their genotoxic effects on Swiss mice. Salted, sundried and oil fried vegetables and fishes induced chromosomal aberrations, sperm head abnormalities and micronuclei production, which were comparable to the effect of the positive control viz., 20-methylcholanthrene. Spices like Cissus quadrangularis (an indigenous herb used in certain south Indian dishes) and pyrolysed cumin and aniseeds showed moderate effects. Calamus oil, widely used in pharmaceuticals was highly effective. All the three parameters of genotoxicity gave similar results.

Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items

Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains.

Antifungal and cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Malaysia

This study was conducted to investigate the antifungal potential and cytotoxicity of selected medicinal plants from Malaysia. The extracts from the stem of Cissus quadrangularis and the leaves of Asplenium nidus, Pereskia bleo, Persicaria odorata and Sauropus androgynus were assayed against six fungi using p-iodonitrotetrazolium-based on colorimetric broth microdilution method. All the plant extracts were found to be fungicidal against at least one type of fungus. The strongest fungicidal activity (minimum fungicidal concentration=0.16 mg/mL) were exhibited by the hexane extract of C. quadrangularis, the hexane, chloroform, ethanol and methanol extracts of P. bleo, the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of P. odorata, and the water extract of A. nidus. In terms of cytotoxicity on the African monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells, the chloroform extract of P. odorata produced the lowest 50% cytotoxic concentration (100.3 ± 4.2 μ g/mL). In contrast, none of the water extracts from the studied plants caused significant toxicity on the cells. The water extract of A. nidus warrants further investigation since it showed the strongest fungicidal activity and the highest total activity (179.22 L/g) against Issatchenkia orientalis, and did not cause any toxicity to the Vero cells.

A short review on pharmacological activity of Cissus quadrangularis

Cissus quadrangularis L. is a succulent plant of family Vitaceae usually found in tropical and subtropical xeric wood. It is a beefy desert plant like liana generally utilized as typical nourishment in India. It finds application in medicine. Experts have made efforts to test the plant's suitability using rational analysis. Some of the pharmacological use of the plant are linked to cell reinforcement, free radical search, hostile to microbials, bone regeneration, ulceration, pain relief, mitigation and diuretics. Hence, we document the available pharmacological data on Cissus quadrangularis L in the literature for further use.

Gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract in rats with experimentally induced ulcer

Background & objectives: Most of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin cause gastric ulcer. In order to study the gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQE), this study was undertaken on aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligated (ASP-PL) model in rats. Methods: To assess the possible antiulcer effect of CQE, lesion index, gastric secretions glycoprotein levels, non-protein sulphydryls (NPSH) and adherent mucus content were determined in ASP-PL induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Results: Pretreatment with CQE significantly prevented the gastric mucosal lesion development and decreased the gastric toxicity produced by ulcerogen. In addition, ulcerated rats showed depletion of gastric wall mucus, glycoproteins and NPSH levels whereas treatment with CQE reverted this decline in ASP-PL induced rats. Histological studies confirmed the results. Interpretation & conclusion: The present finding suggests that CQE promotes ulcer protection by the decrease in ulcer index, gastric secretions and increase in the glycoprotein level, gastric mucin content and NPSH concentration. CQE may protect the gastric mucosa against ulceration by its antisecretory and cytoprotective property.

Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn

Cissus quadrangularis, a medicinal plant indigenous to Asia and Africa, is used for many ailments, especially for the treatment of hemorrhoid. The effects associated with hemorrhoid, i.e. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as the venotonic effect of the methanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQ) were assessed in comparison with reference drugs. In the analgesic test, CQ provoked a significant reduction of the number of writhes in acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. CQ also significantly reduced the licking time in both phases of the formalin test. The results suggest peripheral and central analgesic activity of CQ. In acute phase of inflammation CQ elicited the inhibitory effect on the edema formation of the rats' ear induced by ethyl phenylpropiolate as well as on the formation of the paw edema in rats induced by both carrageenin and arachidonic acid. It is likely that CQ is a dual inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, CQ exerted venotonic effect on isolated human umbilical vein similarly to the mixture of bioflavonoids, i.e. 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin. The results obtained confirmed the traditional use of C. quadrangularis for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with hemorrhoid as well as reducing the size of hemorrhoids.

Evaluation of mutagenic, cytotoxic, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptotic activity, and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis

Recent studies have focused on exploring the efficacy of Cissus quadrangularis extract (EECQ) against various metabolic disorders involving the liver as the prime target organ, suggesting a considerable threat of hepatotoxicity in the person encountering it. Consequently, the current study was aimed to unravel the mutagenic, cytotoxic, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptotic activity in HepG2 cells, and acute toxicity of EECQ. MTT, SRB, trypan blue dye exclusion, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were performed in HepG2 cell lines to determine the cytotoxicity of the extract. The mutagenic potential was determined by the Ames test using various strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Acute toxicity was done at a dose of 2000 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. MTT and SRB cytotoxicity assays demonstrated dose-dependent cytotoxicity of extract. The three highest noncytotoxic doses from the above assay, investigated by trypan blue dye exclusion and LDH assay, did not reveal cytotoxicity. Besides, mitochondrial dysfunction was determined by measuring cellular and mitochondrial ROS, ATP, NAD, mitochondrial membrane potential, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic cytochrome c, and apoptosis-inducing factor, were found to be equivalent in both extract exposed and unexposed cells. Moreover, the apoptotic cell morphology and the expression of pro-apoptotic mRNAs and proteins were equivalent in both the group. In acute toxicity, EECQ in rats did not cause any significant change in body weight, liver index, and liver function test. All-encompassing, the present study unraveled that EECQ is not mutagenic, cytotoxic, nor apoptotic in human hepatic cells, as well as neither acute toxicity.

Potential Curative Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) and Jatropha gossypiifolia (Euphorbiaceae) on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Background: Acetaminophen-induced liver injury remains a significant public health problem because available treatments are limited due to their adverse effects. Medicinal plants, which are an important source of bioactive molecules, could be an alternative treatment for liver disease. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the curative effect of aqueous extracts of Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) and Jatropha gossypiifolia (Euphorbiaceae) on acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. Methods: Mice were divided into groups and treated with distilled water, silymarin (50 mg/kg), a reference hepatoprotective agent, and aqueous extracts of C quadrangularis and J gossypiifolia (50 and 100 mg/kg, PO, respectively). These substances were given as a single daily dose 4 hours after acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, PO) for 2 days. Mice were humanely put to death 24 hours after the last dose and serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, total bilirubin and protein levels, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, catalase, and nitrite tissue levels were assessed. Histology of the livers of the mice was performed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Acetaminophen administration induced a significant (P < 0.05) mean (SEM) body weight loss (-14.45% [5.92%]), a significant elevation of alanine aminotransferase activity (15.08%), total protein and bilirubin levels (25.80%), and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in liver superoxide dismutase (67.71%), catalase (63.00%), glutathione (40.29%), malondialdehyde (30.67%), and nitrite levels compared with the control group. In curative treatment, C quadrangularis and J gossypiifolia (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mean (SEM) body weight loss (16.67% [7.16%] and 1.25% [0.51%], respectively), serum alanine aminotransferase activity (17.62% and 11.14%, respectively), bilirubin level (29.62% and 49.14%, respectively) compared with acetaminophen group, and J gossypiifolia normalized serum total protein level. Both extracts significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the levels of glutathione and malondialdehyde and normalized that of nitrite, superoxide dismutase, and catalase compared with the acetaminophen group. Hepatocyte necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were remarkably reduced by the plant extracts. Conclusions: The results obtained are evidence in favor of the development of a formulation based on the extracts of these plants against liver diseases.

The Use of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) in the Management of Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Participants

We have previously reported a wide range of components from Cissus quadrangularis with in vitro effects on lipases and glycosidases. We now report that a preparation of the plant (CQR-300) administered at 300 mg daily was effective in reducing weight, as well as improving blood parameters associated with metabolic syndrome, as well as serotonin levels in obese and overweight individuals.

Cissus quadrangularis stem alleviates insulin resistance, oxidative injury and fatty liver disease in rats fed high fat plus fructose diet

The study evaluated the protective effects of Cissus quadrangularis stem extract (CQEt) on oxidant-antioxidant balance and insulin resistance (IR) in rats fed high fat-high fructose diet (HFFD) and also tested its free-radical scavenging property in vitro. Rats were fed either control diet or HFFD for 15 days, following which the diet was fortified with CQEt at a dose of 10 g/100g diet. After 60 days, HFFD caused deleterious metabolic effects, including hyperglycemia, IR and liver dysfunction. Rats fed HFFD alone showed increased activities of hepatocellular enzymes in plasma, lipid deposition, significant decline in antioxidants, and elevated lipid peroxidation indices and protein carbonyl in liver. CQEt addition significantly improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal. Histopathology of the liver confirmed the changes induced by HFFD and the heptoprotective effect of CQEt. The effects of CQEtin vivo were comparable with that of standard drug, metformin. Through in vitro assays, CQEt was found to contain large quantities of polyphenols, vitamins C and E. CQEt exhibited radical scavenging ability in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that CQEt affords hepatoprotection by its antioxidant and insulin-sensitizing activities.

In vitro biomineralization and osteogenesis of Cissus quadrangularis stem extracts: An osteogenic regulator for bone tissue engineering

Contemporary demand calls for a high restorative index as an indispensable requirement for bone tissue engineering scaffolds, where therapeutic agents of natural origin function as a modulator for new bone formation become of utmost importance. The study presents a systematic investigation of the edible stem part of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) as a natural resource of bioactive metabolites capable of invoking early biomineralization and osteogenesis in vitro. Phytochemical screening of CQ stem extracts (sequential solvent extraction: polarity hexane

Anxiolytic and Antiepileptic Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) in Mice Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy

Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) is a plant of the Vitaceae family known for its anticonvulsant effects in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to elucidate the anxiolytic and antiepileptic effects of aqueous extract of C. quadrangularis. The mice were divided into different groups and treated for seven consecutive days as follows: a negative control group that received distilled water, po, four test groups that received four doses of the plant (37.22, 93.05, 186.11, and 372.21 mg/kg, po), and a positive control group that received sodium valproate (300 mg/kg, ip). One hour after the first treatment (first day), epilepsy was induced by intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of pilocarpine (360 mg/kg). On the seventh day, the anxiolytic effects of the extract were evaluated in the epileptic mice using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OP) paradigms. Antioxidant activities and the involvement of gabaergic neurotransmission were determined by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), GABA, and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) in the hippocampus of sacrificed epileptic mice. The results show that the extract of C. quadrangularis significantly and dose-dependently increased the latency to clonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures and decreased the number and duration of seizures. In the EPM, the extract of C. quadrangularis significantly increased the number of entries and the time spent into the open arms and reduced the number of entries and the time spent into the closed arms as well as the number of rearing. The extract of C. quadrangularis also increased the number of crossing, and the time spent in the center of the OP. The level of MDA and the activity of GABA-T were significantly decreased by the extract of C. quadrangularis while reduced GSH and GABA levels were increased. The results suggest that the anticonvulsant activities of C. quadrangularis are accompanied by its anxiolytics effects. These effects may be supported by its antioxidant properties and mediated at least in part by the GABA neurotransmission.

Cissus quadrangularis extract enhances biomineralization through up-regulation of MAPK-dependent alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts

Cissus quadrangularis Linn. has been implicated as therapeutic agent for enhancing bone healing. Though its osteogenic activity has been suggested, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of ethanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQ-E) on osteoblast differentiation and function were analyzed using murine osteoblastic cells. The results indicated that mRNA expressions of osteoblast-related genes were not affected by the CQ-E treatment. However, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the extent of mineralized nodules were significantly increased in treated cells compared with controls. The addition of an extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 inhibitor, a Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2/3 inhibitor and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor resulted in significantly decreased ALP activity, preferentially by p38 MAPK inhibitor. These results suggested that CQ-E may regulate osteoblastic activity by enhancing ALP activity and mineralization process, and the increased ALP activity effect of CQ-E is likely mediated by MAPK-dependent pathway.

Cissus quadrangularis L. extract attenuates chronic ulcer by possible involvement of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen

The present study was designed to investigate whether Cissus quandrangularis extract (CQE) had healing effects on gastric ulcer, through modulation of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in rats. Administration of acetic acid (AA) was accompanied by reduced PCNA which was determined by immunohistochemical staining, (3)H-thymidine incorporation using liquid scintillation spectrometry, mitochondrial marker enzymes, polyamine contents and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) expression in gastric mucosa of rats. Administration of CQE after the application of AA to the stomach enhanced the reduction of ulcer area in a dose-dependent manner which was confirmed by histoarchitecture. Moreover, CQE significantly increased the (3)H-thymidine incorporation and the levels of polyamines such as putrescine, spermine and spermidine in ulcerated rats. In addition, the extract offers gastroprotection in the ulcerated area by increased expression of TGF-α and also reversed the changes in the gastric mucosa of ulcerated rats with significant elevation in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and PCNA levels. Based on these results, the healing effect of CQE on AA induced gastric mucosal injury in rats may be attributed to its growth promoting and cytoprotective actions, possibly involving an increase in tissue polyamine contents and cell proliferation.

Cissus quadrangularis ethanol extract upregulates superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in hydrogen peroxide-injured human ECV304 cells

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cissus quadrangularis has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hemorrhoid. However, the detailed mechanism of antioxidant defense of C. quadrangularis in endothelial cells under oxidative stress remains unclear. Aim of the study: The present study aims to elucidate the protective role of ethanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) including its constituents, quercetin and resveratrol, on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-injured human umbilical vein endothelial ECV304 cells. Materials and methods: Viability, genotoxicity and protein expression of ECV304 cells were analyzed by MTT, alkaline comet and Western blot, respectively. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence dye. Results: After exposing cells to CQE containing quercetin and resveratrol, DNA damage was not observed. CQE including quercetin and resveratrol significantly attenuated ROS in H(2)O(2)-injured ECV304 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The protein expression of superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) increased in the cells treated with CQE, quercetin or resveratrol prior to H(2)O(2) exposure, as compared with control. Conclusions: The results provide a molecular mechanism of C. quadrangularis, which could be partially related to quercetin and resveratrol, in restoring ROS in endothelial cells through the upregulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, GPx and eNOS.

Cissus quadrangularis reduces joint pain in exercise-trained men: a pilot study

Background: Strenuous, high-volume exercise is often associated with inflammation and joint pain. Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of our study was to determine the therapeutic effects of CQ supplementation in healthy, exercise-trained men with joint-specific pain. Methods: Twenty-nine men between the ages of 20 and 46 years, who reportedly experienced chronic joint pain as a result of strenuous exercise, participated in our pilot study. All men received CQ 3200 mg daily for 8 weeks. Before and after the 8-week intervention period, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their degree of joint pain (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis [WOMAC]). Clinical measures (eg, heart rate, blood pressure, blood biomarkers) were also collected for each subject pre- (baseline) and post-intervention. Results: Subject ratings for multiple variables within the WOMAC Index improved (decreased) significantly (P < 0.05), with the subject mean total WOMAC score decreasing from 25.4 ± 2.4 to 17.4 ± 2.1 (~31%), pre- to post-intervention. No clinical measure was significantly impacted by use of CQ supplementation. Conclusion: An 8-week course of supplementation with CQ reduced joint pain in a sample of 29 young, otherwise healthy, exercise-trained men. Additional study is needed to extend these findings, including comparison with a placebo-controlled cohort, and possibly, examining effects of CQ use in women and older adult subjects.

Cissus quadrangularis attenuates the adjuvant induced arthritis by down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine and inhibiting angiogenesis

Ethnopharmacological relevance: In traditional medicine, Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a chief ingredient of many formulation for the treatment of inflammatory and bone disorders.. Objective: The study was carried out to investigate the anti-arthritic activity of C. quadrangularis hydroalcoholic extract (CQHE) and to explore the plausible mechanism of action. Materials and methods: Arthritis was induced by sub plantar administration of formaldehyde (2% v/v) and 0.1ml of complete Freund's adjuvant. Joint swelling was measured on days 8, 9 and 10 in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and on 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) respectively. Serum and ankle joints of AIA rats were used for estimation of serum TNF-α level, oxidative stress markers and synovial expression of proinflammatory cytokines/cytokine receptor (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-R1), angiogenesis marker (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3& 9). An acute and 28-day oral toxicity was carried out to evaluate the safety of the test drug. Results: CQHE produced a dose dependent inhibition of joint swelling in both formaldehyde-induced and adjuvant induced arthritis. CQHE treatment also reduced serum TNF-α level, oxidative stress and synovial expression of inflammatory and angiogenesis marker. In sub acute toxicity study of CQHE, chronic administration of CQHE did not produce any physiological and pathological changes as compared to normal rats. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the anti-arthritic potential of C. quadrangularis and it validates its traditional use for the treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory disorders.

Hepatoprotective Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract Against Rifampicin-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis against rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.The coarse powder of the shade dried stem of Cissus quadrangularis was subjected to successive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using solvents petroleum ether (60-80°) and methanol. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats by administering rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 mg/kg, p.o) was administered 1 h prior to the administration of rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o) used as reference drug. Elevated levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline posphatase and bilirubin following rifampicin induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis. Rifampicin administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activities like reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutas and catalase. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant activities. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with the methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis further confirms the hepatoprotective activity. The results of the present study indicated the hepatoprotective effect of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis which might be ascribable to its antioxidant property due to the presence of β-carotene.

Cissus quadrangularis (Hadjod) Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Augments Bone Health in an Estrogen-Deficient Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis Via Modulating the Host Osteoimmune System

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mineral density (BMD), degeneration of bone micro-architecture, and impaired bone strength. Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), popularly known as Hadjod (bone setter) in Hindi, is a traditional medicinal herb exhibiting osteoprotective potential in various bone diseases, especially osteoporosis and fractures. However, the cellular mechanisms underpinning its direct effect on bone health through altering the host immune system have never been elucidated. In the present study, we interrogated the osteoprotective and immunoporotic (the osteoprotective potential of CQ via modulating the host immune system) potential of CQ in preventing inflammatory bone loss under oestrogen-deficient conditions. The current study outlines the CQ's osteoprotective potential under both ex vivo and in vivo (ovariectomized) conditions. Our ex vivo data demonstrated that, in a dose-dependent manner CQ, suppresses the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (p < 0.001) as well as inhibiting the osteoclast functional activity (p < 0.001) in mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs). Our in vivo µ-CT and flow cytometry data further showed that CQ administration improves bone health and preserves bone micro-architecture by markedly raising the proportion of anti-osteoclastogenic immune cells, such as Th1 (p < 0.05), Th2 (p < 0.05), Tregs (p < 0.05), and Bregs (p < 0.01), while concurrently lowering the osteoclastogenic Th17 cells in bone marrow, mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen in comparison to the control group. Serum cytokine analysis further supported the osteoprotective and immunoporotic potential of CQ, showing a significant increase in the levels of anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines (p < 0.05) (IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10) and a concurrent decrease in the levels of osteoclastogenic cytokines (p < 0.05) (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17). In conclusion, our data for the first time delineates the novel cellular and immunological mechanism of the osteoprotective potential of CQ under postmenopausal osteoporotic conditions.

A review and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis extracts

Extracts and powders of Cissus quadrangularis have been used for many years to promote bone and tissues healing, as an analgesic, to treat infections, as an anabolic, and to promote weight loss and weight management. This review summarizes the studies in animals, humans and in vitro systems that have been conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of various Cissus preparations. Animal and in vitro studies provide support for the use of Cissus in promoting bone fracture healing and as an anti-osteoporotic. Several human studies support the use of Cissus extracts in weight management. No studies have been conducted demonstrating that Cissus exhibits anabolic and body building activities. Based on studies to date, Cissus extracts appear to be exceedingly safe and free of adverse effects at the doses commonly used. A wide variety of chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from Cissus extracts, including steroids, flavonoids, stilbenes, iridoids, triterpenes and gallic acid derivatives. However, in few cases have specific physiological effects been related to identifiable constituents. Better standardization of extracts and more well-controlled human studies are required.

Efficacy and Safety of Cissus quadrangularis L. in Clinical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Cissus quadrangularis L. (Cissus) is a medicinal plant commonly used for centuries for various conditions, but lacks critical appraisal of its clinical effects. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Cissus in all conditions. Publications from 12 electronic databases were searched from inception through November 2016. A total of nine studies with 1108 patients were included. Each outcome was pooled using a random effects model. Effects of Cissus on hemorrhoid symptoms were not different from any comparators but had significant effects on bone pain. Effects of Cissus combination products on body weight reduction, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were superior to placebo, with weighted mean difference of -5.19 kg (-8.82, -1.55), -14.43 mg/dl (-20.06, -8.80), -37.50 mg/dl (-48.71, -26.29), -50.50 mg/dl (-70.97, -30.04), and -10.39 mg/dl (-14.60, -6.18), respectively. No serious adverse effects were reported. Quality of evidence based on Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) indicated low (bone fractures) to high quality (hemorrhoids, body weight reduction).In conclusion, Cissus had benefit for bone fractures, but not for hemorrhoids. For obesity/overweight, only combination products are pooled and show benefit. However, high-quality studies remain needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Cissus quadrangularis extract mitigates diabetic cardiomyopathy by inhibiting RAAS activation, inflammation and oxidative stress

Background: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an age-related disease, and its progression is accompanied by hyperglycaemia, cardiac dysfunction, and myocardial structural and functional abnormalities. Cissus quadrangularis, a traditional medicinal plant, contains polyphenols, flavonoids, phytosterols, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid. It is used to treat osteoporosis, asthma, haemorrhoids and menstrual disorders.Objective: In the current research, we have investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis (EECQ) against a high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin-induced DCM by estimating cardiac biomarkers, inflammatory markers and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Material and methods: Rats were fed with an HFD for 12 weeks, followed by single-shot low-dose streptozotocin (35 mg/kg; i.p.). The treatment was performed by EECQ (200 mg/kg/day, orally) for six weeks. Results: The extract EECQ improves glucose, insulin tolerance tests and hypercholesteremia. DCM is characterized by cardiac dysfunction, cardiac biomarkers CKMB and LDH, which were attenuated by the EECQ treatment. The hypertrophic biomarker ANP, BNP expression and cardiomyocyte surface area were decreased by EECQ. Moreover, EECQ also alleviated the biomarkers Angiotensin II and renin level. EECQ also reduced oxidative stress, ROS production and cardiac inflammation. Conclusions: Thus, these findings suggested that EECQ could be used as a possible therapeutic regiment to treat DCM.

Role of Cissus quadrangularis in the Management of Osteoporosis: An Overview

This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), which is a traditional medicinal herb and has a potential osteoprotective effect. CQ is a perennial climber of family Vitaceae that is commonly found in the hotter parts of India. It is most widely used in India for improving bone health and is well known as "hadjod." It shows an anti-osteoporotic effect through different pathways mechanisms. It is natural matrices of excellence with proven bioactivity. Several cell line and animal studies demonstrated its protective nature against many diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, gastric ulcers etc. This review also highlights the phytochemicals identified to the date and related pharmacological applications. The discussion has also expanded to its oral formulations, which has been proven for its efficacy practically. However, the scientific information of CQ is not in the proper documentation for reference, and so availability of scientific knowledge of this climber is limited. Therefore, this review might be provided a platform to those who will be interested in studying further this herb, either for analyzing phytochemical profiling or its anti-osteoporotic usage. This is a crucial platform as several productive results have been reported on this herb, which likely to be beneficial for new drug discovery in future. Here we also discuss the bone remodeling and related factors influenced by the intake of CQ.

Cissus quadrangularis L: A comprehensive multidisciplinary review

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cissus quadrangularis L. is a perennial herb of the Vitaceae family and is utilized comprehensively as a medicinal herb in most tropical regions by various names. This herb is documented to possess a wide-ranging ethnomedicinal uses in malaria, fever, epilepsy, gout, piles, skin diseases, colic, etc. AIM OF THE REVIEW: A organized summary of the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, available marketed formulations and filed patents were presented to explore the future therapeutic potential and scientific potential of this herb. Materials and methods: For a review of the literature, various databases were searched, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus etc. From, total 408 records of this herb, we have screened 155 articles consist of desired information and available as full text. Present manuscript is structured from comprehensive information on this herb from screened 155 records. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List". Results: Phytochemical assessment as a whole indicated the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, iridoids, stilbenes, vitamins, steroids, and glycosides. A toxicity study revealed that its LD50 value is above 3000 mg/kg in animals indicating its safety. A variety of pharmacological studies of aerial parts of this herb by different extracts have demonstrated analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-osteoporotic activity and other bone-related disorders to justify its name as Hadjod. Still, the herb has been utilized in clinical practice and several patents were filed in India and US for its antiosteoporotic property. Conclusion: The studies on Cissus quadrangularis Linn. are extensive, but gaps still remain. The molecular mechanism, structure-activity relationship, potential synergistic and antagonistic effects of these components needs to be further elucidated. These findings suggest the need for further research on this herb for the management of several other chronic ailments.

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