DIM (Diindolylmethane) - NutraHacker Journal Club
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Emerging evidence provide credible support in favor of the potential role of bioactive products derived from ingesting cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, brussel sprouts, cauliflower and cabbage. Among many compounds, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) is generated in the acidic environment of the stomach following dimerization of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) monomers present in these classes of vegetables. Both I3C and DIM have been investigated for their use in preventing, inhibiting, and reversing the progression of cancer - as a chemopreventive agent. In this review, we summarize an updated, wide-ranging pleiotropic anti-tumor and biological effects elicited by DIM against tumor cells. It is unfeasible to point one single target as basis of cellular target of action of DIM. We emphasize key cellular and molecular events that are effectively modulated in the direction of inducing apoptosis and suppressing cell proliferation. Collectively, DIM orchestrates signaling through Ah receptor, NF-κB/Wnt/Akt/mTOR pathways impinging on cell cycle arrest, modulation of key cytochrome P450 enzymes, altering angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and epigenetic behavior of cancer cells. The ability of DIM to selectively induce tumor cells to undergo apoptosis has been observed in preclinical models, and thus it has been speculated in improving the therapeutic efficacy of other anticancer agents that have diverse molecular targets. Consequently, DIM has moved through preclinical development into Phase I clinical trials, thereby suggesting that DIM could be a promising and novel agent either alone or as an adjunct to conventional therapeutics such as chemo-radio and targeted therapies. An important development has been the availability of DIM formulation with superior bioavailability for humans. Therefore, DIM appears to be a promising chemopreventive agent or chemo-radio-sensitizer for the prevention of tumor recurrence and/or for the treatment of human malignancies.
DIMming ovarian cancer growth
Ovarian cancer is the leading gynecologic malignancy with more than 22,000 new cases and 15,000 deaths estimated each year. It is usually detected in late stages with poor prognosis due to lack of sufficiently accurate screening tests. Epidemiological studies continue to support the notion that consumption of cruciferous vegetables reduces the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present review article, we describe the anti-cancer effects of 3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), a compound present in cruciferous vegetables, against ovarian cancer. DIM targets multiple aspects of cancer such as cellcycle regulation and survival, including EGFR-JAK2-STAT3 signaling, checkpoint activation, caspase activation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and anoikis. This broad spectrum of anti-cancer activities in conjunction with low systemic toxicity accentuates the translational value of DIM in cancer therapy. Together, our pre-clinical studies demonstrate that DIM has activity against ovarian cancer and hence should be further investigated in clinical setting to exploit its therapeutic potential.
IL6-induced metastasis modulators p-STAT3, MMP-2 and MMP-9 are targets of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in ovarian cancer cells
Purpose: Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal gynecological malignancy for which the overall prognosis has remained poor over the past few decades. Interleukin (IL6) has been found to be a major contributor to the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer. This cytokine exerts its activity through activation of several signaling pathways, in particular the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway. Here, we aimed at investigating the capacity of a natural dietary compound found in cruciferous vegetables, i.e., 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), to target the metastatic phenotype of ovarian cancer cells through functional p-STAT3. Methods: The human ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines SKOV3 and A2780 were treated with IL6 and/or DIM and subjected to in vitro proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion assays to assess the anti-metastatic and anti-IL6 effects of DIM, as well as to assess gene expression alterations before and after shRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing. Results: We found that DIM inhibits IL6-mediated increases in ovarian cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion. These results were corroborated by shRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing. Through Western blot and ELISA analyses direct evidence was provided for the capacity of DIM to inhibit ovarian cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion, which was found to be associated with down-regulation of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. Conclusions: From our data we conclude that DIM exhibits an anti-IL6-like activity by inhibiting p-STAT3 enhanced ovarian cancer cell proliferation and in vitro metastasis-associated events, i.e., adhesion, migration and invasion. Most significantly, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are known to promote and enhance metastasis, were found to act as targets of DIM. This anti-IL6-like property of DIM may pave the way for the development of novel ovarian cancer preventive and/or therapeutic strategies.
Estrogen induced metastatic modulators MMP-2 and MMP-9 are targets of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in thyroid cancer
Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine related cancer with increasing incidences during the past five years. Current treatments for thyroid cancer, such as surgery or radioactive iodine therapy, often require patients to be on lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy and given the significant recurrence rates of thyroid cancer, new preventive modalities are needed. The present study investigates the property of a natural dietary compound found in cruciferous vegetables, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), to target the metastatic phenotype of thyroid cancer cells through a functional estrogen receptor. Methodology/principal findings: Thyroid cancer cell lines were treated with estrogen and/or DIM and subjected to in vitro adhesion, migration and invasion assays to investigate the anti-metastatic and anti-estrogenic effects of DIM. We observed that DIM inhibits estrogen mediated increase in thyroid cell migration, adhesion and invasion, which is also supported by ER-α downregulation (siRNA) studies. Western blot and zymography analyses provided direct evidence for this DIM mediated inhibition of E(2) enhanced metastasis associated events by virtue of targeting essential proteolytic enzymes, namely MMP-2 and MMP-9. Conclusion/significance: Our data reports for the first time that DIM displays anti-estrogenic like activity by inhibiting estradiol enhanced thyroid cancer cell proliferation and in vitro metastasis associated events, namely adhesion, migration and invasion. Most significantly, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are known to promote and enhance metastasis, were determined to be targets of DIM. This anti-estrogen like property of DIM may lead to the development of a novel preventive and/or therapeutic dietary supplement for thyroid cancer patients by targeting progression of the disease.
Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of 3,3'-Diindolylmethane in Gastrointestinal Cancer
Studies in humans have shown that 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), which is found in cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage and broccoli, is effective in the attenuation of gastrointestinal cancers. This review presents the latest findings on the use, targets, and modes of action of DIM for the treatment of human gastrointestinal cancers. DIM acts upon several cellular and molecular processes in gastrointestinal cancer cells, including apoptosis, autophagy, invasion, cell cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, DIM increases the efficacy of other drugs or therapeutic chemicals when used in combinatorial treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. The studies to date offer strong evidence to support the use of DIM as an anticancer and therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal cancer. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the preventive and therapeutic properties of DIM in addition to its different perspective on the safety of DIM in clinical applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.
Regulating miRNA by natural agents as a new strategy for cancer treatment
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-strand non-coding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression by multiple mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that miRNAs are critically involved in the pathogenesis, evolution, and progression of cancer. The miRNAs are also crucial for the regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In addition, miRNAs are known to control the processes of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) of cancer cells. This evidence suggests that miRNAs could serve as targets in cancer treatment, and as such manipulating miRNAs could be useful for the killing CSCs or reversal of EMT phenotype of cancer cells. Hence, targeting miRNAs, which are deregulated in cancer, could be a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Recently, the regulation of miRNAs by natural, nontoxic chemopreventive agents including curcumin, resveratrol, isoflavones, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), lycopene, 3,3'- diindolylmethane (DIM), and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has been described. Therefore, natural agents could inhibit cancer progression, increase drug sensitivity, reverse EMT, and prevent metastasis though modulation of miRNAs, which will provide a newer therapeutic approach for cancer treatment especially when combined with conventional therapeutics.
A Comprehensive Review on Nutraceuticals: Therapy Support and Formulation Challenges
Nutraceuticals are the nourishing components (hybrid of nutrition and pharmaceuticals) that are biologically active and possess capability for maintaining optimal health and benefits. These products play a significant role in human health care and its endurance, most importantly for the future therapeutic development. Nutraceuticals have received recognition due to their nutritional benefits along with therapeutic effects and safety profile. Nutraceuticals are globally growing in the field of services such as health care promotion, disease reduction, etc. Various drug nutraceutical interactions have also been elaborated with various examples in this review. Several patents on nutraceuticals in agricultural applications and in various diseases have been stated in the last section of review, which confirms the exponential growth of nutraceuticals' market value. Nutraceuticals have been used not only for nutrition but also as a support therapy for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as to reduce side effects of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Diverse novel nanoformulation approaches tend to overcome challenges involved in formulation development of nutraceuticals. Prior information on various interactions with drugs may help in preventing any deleterious effects of nutraceuticals products. Nanotechnology also leads to the generation of micronized dietary products and other nutraceutical supplements with improved health benefits. In this review article, the latest key findings (clinical studies) on nutraceuticals that show the therapeutic action of nutraceutical's bioactive molecules on various diseases have also been discussed.
Attenuation of Carcinogenesis and the Mechanism Underlying by the Influence of Indole-3-carbinol and Its Metabolite 3,3'-Diindolylmethane: A Therapeutic Marvel
Rising evidence provides credible support towards the potential role of bioactive products derived from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, brussels sprouts, turnips, kohlrabi, bok choy, and radishes. Many epidemiological studies point out that Brassica vegetable protects humans against cancer since they are rich sources of glucosinolates in addition to possessing a high content of flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) belongs to the class of compounds called indole glucosinolate, obtained from cruciferous vegetables, and is well-known for tits anticancer properties. In particular, I3C and its dimeric product, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been generally investigated for their value against a number of human cancers in vitro as well as in vivo. This paper reviews an in-depth study of the anticancer activity and the miscellaneous mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenicity thereby broadening its therapeutic marvel.
The mTOR signalling pathway in cancer and the potential mTOR inhibitory activities of natural phytochemicals
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase plays an important role in regulating cell growth and cell cycle progression in response to cellular signals. It is a key regulator of cell proliferation and many upstream activators and downstream effectors of mTOR are known to be deregulated in various types of cancers. Since the mTOR signalling pathway is commonly activated in human cancers, many researchers are actively developing inhibitors that target key components in the pathway and some of these drugs are already on the market. Numerous preclinical investigations have also suggested that some herbs and natural phytochemicals, such as curcumin, resveratrol, timosaponin III, gallic acid, diosgenin, pomegranate, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCC), genistein and 3,3'-diindolylmethane inhibit the mTOR pathway either directly or indirectly. Some of these natural compounds are also in the clinical trial stage. In this review, the potential anti-cancer and chemopreventive activities and the current status of clinical trials of these phytochemicals are discussed.
Multiple therapeutic and preventive effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane on cancers including prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia
Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN.
3,3'-Diindolylmethane Promotes BDNF and Antioxidant Enzyme Formation via TrkB/Akt Pathway Activation for Neuroprotection against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Hippocampal Neuronal Cells
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a metabolite of indole-3-carbinol present in Brassicaceae vegetables, possesses various health-promoting effects. Nonetheless, the effect of DIM on neurodegenerative diseases has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we hypothesized DIM may protect neuronal cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by promoting the formation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and antioxidant enzymes through stabilizing the activation of the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) cascade and we investigated the effect of DIM on oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative models. DIM protected neuronal cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in glutamate-treated HT-22 cells. Additionally, DIM improved the expression of BDNF and antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1, by promoting the activation of the TrkB/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in the cells. Consistent with in vitro studies, DIM attenuated memory impairment by protecting hippocampal neuronal cells against oxidative damage in scopolamine-treated mice. Conclusionally, DIM exerted neuroprotective and antioxidant actions through the activation of both BDNF production and antioxidant enzyme formation in accordance with the TrkB/Akt pathway in neuronal cells. Such an effect of DIM may provide information for the application of DIM in the prevention of and therapy for neurodegenerative diseases.
An overview on neuroprotective effects of isothiocyanates for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases
The discovery of new natural compounds with pharmacological properties is a field of interest widely growing, especially for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. As no pharmacological treatment is available to prevent the development of these disorders, dietary intake of foods or plant-based extracts with antioxidant properties might have beneficial effects on human health and improve brain functions. Isothiocyanates (ITCs), derived from the hydrolysis of the corresponding glucosinolates (GLs), mainly found in Brassica vegetables (Brassicaceae) and, to a lesser extent, in Moringaceae plants, have demonstrated to exert neuroprotective properties. Specifically, strong evidences suggest that antioxidant effects may be ascribed mainly to their peculiar ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway, but alternative mechanisms of action have also been suggested. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the neuroprotective effects of ITCs in counteracting oxidative stress as well as inflammatory and apoptotic mechanisms, using in vitro and in vivo models of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disease. Therefore, ITCs could be regarded as a promising source of alternative medicine for the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
A Novel Phytochemical, DIM, Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, Invasion and TNF-α Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production of Synovial Fibroblasts From Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients by Targeting MAPK and AKT/mTOR Signal Pathway
In rheumatoid arthritis(RA) pathogenesis, activated RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLSs) exhibit similar proliferative features as tumor cells and subsequent erosion to cartilage will eventually lead to joint destruction. Therefore, it is imperative to search for compounds, which can effectively inhibit the abnormal activation of RA-FLSs, and retard RA progression.3'3-Diindolylmethane (DIM), the major product of the acid-catalyzed oligomerization of indole-3-carbinol from cruciferous vegetables, has been reported to be functionally relevant to inhibition of migration, invasion and carcinogenesis in some solid tumors. In this study, we explored the anti-proliferation, anti-metastasis and anti-inflammation effects of DIM on RA-FLSs as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. To do this, primary RA-FLSs were isolated from RA patients and an animal model. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were measured using CCK-8, scratch, and Transwell assays, respectively. The effects of DIM on Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and some inflammatory factors mRNA and key molecules such as some inflammatory factors and those involved in aberrantly-activated signaling pathway in response to tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α), a typical characteristic mediator in RA-FLS, were quantitatively measured by real-time PCR and western blotting. Moreover, the effect of DIM on adjuvant induced arthritis(AIA) models was evaluated with C57BL/6 mice in vivo. The results showed that DIM inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of RA-FLS in vitro. Meanwhile, DIM dramatically suppressed TNF-α-induced increases in the mRNA levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9; as well as the proinflammatory factors IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β. Mechanistic studies revealed that DIM is able to suppress phosphorylated activation not only of p38, JNK in MAPK pathway but of AKT, mTOR and downstream molecules in the AKT/mTOR pathway. Moreover, DIM treatment decreased expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and alleviated arthritis severity in the knee joints of AIA mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that DIM could inhibit proliferation, migration and invasion of RA-FLSs and reduce proinflammatory factors induced by TNF-α in vitro by blocking MAPK and AKT/mTOR pathway and prevent inflammation and knee joint destruction in vivo, which suggests that DIM might have therapeutic potential for RA.
Targeting the Microcirculation by Indole-3-carbinol and Its Main Derivate 3,3,'-diindolylmethane: Effects on Angiogenesis, Thrombosis and Inflammation
The pharmacological targeting of microcirculatory dysregulations is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of numerous pathological conditions, such as cancer, thrombosis and inflammation. A promising candidate for this purpose is indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a phytochemical compound of cruciferous vegetables, and its main derivate 3,3,'-diindolylmethane (DIM). As summarized in this review, I3C and DIM affect multiple molecular and cellular processes within the microcirculation due to their pleiotropic action profile. These include angiogenesis, leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thrombus formation and microvascular leakage. Hence, I3C may serve as a lead compound for the future chemical synthesis of novel drugs that exert comparable beneficial effects while exhibiting an improved bioavailability.
3,3'-diindolylmethane inhibits LPS-induced human chondrocytes apoptosis and extracellular matrix degradation by activating PI3K-Akt-mTOR-mediated autophagy
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage destruction. The pathological mechanisms are complex; in particular, inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis are often involved. 3,3-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a phytoconstituent extracted from cruciferous vegetables, has various effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic. However, the effects of DIM on osteoarthritic chondrocytes remain undetermined. In this study, we simulated a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoarthritis model in human primary chondrocytes. We found that LPS stimulation significantly inhibited autophagy, induced chondrocyte apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, which could be ameliorated by DIM. DIM inhibited the expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif 5 (ADAMTS-5), matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13), cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and p62, and increased the expression level of collagen II, aggrecan, Bcl-2, light chain 3 Ⅱ (LC3 Ⅱ), and beclin-1. Mechanistic studies showed that DIM increased chondrocyte autophagy levels by inhibiting the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In mice destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model, immunohistochemical analysis showed that DIM inhibited the expression of p-PI3K and cleaved caspase-3, increased the expression of LC3 Ⅱ. Furthermore, DIM relieved joint cartilage degeneration. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate for the first time that DIM inhibits LPS-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and ECM degradation by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR-autophagy axis and delays OA progression in vivo.
The Anticancer Agent 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Inhibits Multispecies Biofilm Formation by Acne-Causing Bacteria and Candida albicans
The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Cutibacterium acnes is a major inhabitant of human skin and has been implicated in acne vulgaris formation and in the formation of multispecies biofilms with other skin-inhabiting organisms like Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Indoles are widespread in nature (even in human skin) and function as important signaling molecules in diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of 20 indoles against C. acnes. Of the indoles tested, indole-3-carbinol at 0.1 mM significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. acnes without affecting planktonic cell growth, and the anticancer drug 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) at 0.1 mM (32 μg/mL) also significantly inhibited planktonic cell growth and biofilm formation by C. acnes, whereas the other indoles and indole itself were less effective. Also, DIM at 0.1 mM successfully inhibited multispecies biofilm formation by C. acnes, S. aureus, and C. albicans. Transcriptional analyses showed that DIM inhibited the expressions of several biofilm-related genes in C. acnes, and at 0.05 mM, DIM inhibited hyphal formation and cell aggregation by C. albicans. These results suggest that DIM and other indoles inhibit biofilm formation by C. acnes and have potential use for treating C. acnes associated diseases. IMPORTANCE Since indoles are widespread in nature (even in human skin), we hypothesized that indole and its derivatives might control biofilm formation of acne-causing bacteria (Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungal Candida albicans. The present study reports for the first time the antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities of several indoles on C. acnes. Of the indoles tested, two anticancer agents, indole-3-carbinol and 3,3'-diindolylmethane found in cruciferous vegetables, significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. acnes. Furthermore, the most active 3,3'-diindolylmethane successfully inhibited multispecies biofilm formation by C. acnes, S. aureus, and C. albicans. Transcriptional analyses showed that 3,3'-diindolylmethane inhibited the expressions of several biofilm-related genes including lipase, hyaluronate lyase, and virulence-related genes in C. acnes, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane inhibited hyphal formation and cell aggregation by C. albicans. Our findings show that 3,3'-diindolylmethane offers a potential means of controlling acne vulgaris and multispecies biofilm-associated infections due to its antibiofilm and antibiotic properties.
Hormonal Regulation In Pcos Using Acupuncture And Herbal Supplements: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of menstrual irregularity and hyperandrogenism in women of reproductive age. Conventional treatment is centered around the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) to regulate menstrual cycles, protect against endometrial hyperplasia, and manage clinically evident androgen excess. Many women prefer to avoid OCPs due to concerns about risks and adverse effects, or simply because they desire a non-pharmacologic approach. We present the case of a young woman with a strong preference for a natural approach to her care who presented with PCOS manifesting in menstrual irregularity, acne, and hirsutism. In this case, acupuncture as well as the botanicals Vitex agnus-castus and diindolylmethane were used over a 10-month period. The patient regained menstrual cyclicity, and clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism normalized. This report underscores the need for an integrative approach to the management of multifactorial disorders such as PCOS and highlights the basic science and clinical data supporting the use of acupuncture, Vitex agnus-castus, and diindolylmethane in patients with this condition.
3,3 diindolylmethane leads to apoptosis, decreases sperm quality, affects blood estradiol 17 β and testosterone, oestrogen (α and β) and androgen receptor levels in the reproductive system in male rats
3,3 Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a major digestive product of indole-3 carbinol, obtained from Brassica family vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage and Brussels sprouts. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DIM on sperm parameters, histological structures of testicular tissues, blood testosterone (T) and estradiol 17-β (E2) in male rats. Thirty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats were used. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I: referred as Control group, received corn oil only; Group II: as DIM-10, rats received 10 mg kg-1 DIM; Group III: as DIM-50, rats received 50 mg kg-1 DIM; Group IV: as DIM-100, received 100 mg kg-1 DIM during 53 days. Spermatological parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of testes and serum T and E2 levels were assayed. Histopathological examinations of tests were done. DIM caused an increase in MDA levels. It decreased motility and live sperm rates and increased degeneration of testicular tissues. While DIM-10 did not affect abnormal sperm rate, higher concentrations increased the abnormalities. Sperm density was higher in DIM-10 groups when compared to both other groups. Only DIM-50 had an anti-androgenic effect among all groups. Only, DIM-10 showed anti-estrogenic activity as compared to higher DIM groups. In conclusion, DIM (i) had side effect on some sperm characteristics, (ii) increased the MDA levels and (iii) led to histological degeneration of testicular tissues and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.
Plant-derived 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a strong androgen antagonist in human prostate cancer cells
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a major digestive product of indole-3-carbinol, a potential anticancer component of cruciferous vegetables. Our results indicate that DIM exhibits potent antiproliferative and antiandrogenic properties in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells. DIM suppresses cell proliferation of LNCaP cells and inhibits dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulation of DNA synthesis. These activities were not produced in androgen-independent PC-3 cells. Moreover, DIM inhibited endogenous PSA transcription and reduced intracellular and secreted PSA protein levels induced by DHT in LNCaP cells. Also, DIM inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the DHT-induced expression of a prostate-specific antigen promoter-regulated reporter gene construct in transiently transfected LNCaP cells. Similar effects of DIM were observed in PC-3 cells only when these cells were co-transfected with a wild-type androgen receptor expression plasmid. Using fluorescence imaging with green fluorescent protein androgen receptor and Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that DIM inhibited androgen-induced androgen receptor (AR) translocation into the nucleus. Results of receptor binding assays indicated further that DIM is a strong competitive inhibitor of DHT binding to the AR. Results of structural modeling studies showed that DIM is remarkably similar in conformational geometry and surface charge distribution to an established synthetic AR antagonist, although the atomic compositions of the two substances are quite different. Taken together with our published reports of the estrogen agonist activities of DIM, the present results establish DIM as a unique bifunctional hormone disrupter. To our knowledge, DIM is the first example of a pure androgen receptor antagonist from plants.
Retraction: Down-regulation of Androgen Receptor by 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Contributes to Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis in Both Hormone-Sensitive LNCaP and Insensitive C4-2B Prostate Cancer Cells
Strain-specific altered nicotine metabolism in 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) exposed mice
Two indole compounds, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its acid condensation product, 3,3'-diindolymethane (DIM), have been shown to suppress the expression of flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) and to induce some hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in rats. In liver microsomes prepared from rats fed I3C or DIM, FMO-mediated nicotine N-oxygenation was decreased, whereas CYP-mediated nicotine metabolism to nicotine iminium and subsequently to cotinine was unchanged. Therefore, it was hypothesized that in mice DIM would also suppress nicotine N-oxygenation without affecting CYP-mediated nicotine metabolism. Liver microsomes were produced from male and female C57BL/6 J and CD1 mice fed 2500 parts per million (ppm) DIM for 14 days. In liver microsomes from DIM-fed mice, FMO-mediated nicotine N-oxygenation did not differ from the controls, but CYP-mediated nicotine metabolism was significantly increased, with results varying by sex and strain. To confirm the effects of DIM in vivo, control and DIM-fed CD1 male mice were injected subcutaneously with nicotine, and the plasma concentrations of nicotine, cotinine and nicotine-N-oxide were measured over 30 minutes. The DIM-fed mice showed greater cotinine concentrations compared with the controls 10 minutes following injection. It is concluded that the effects of DIM on nicotine metabolism in vitro and in vivo differ between mice and rats and between mouse strains, and that DIM is an effective inducer of CYP-mediated nicotine metabolism in commonly studied mouse strains.
Inhibitory effects of a dietary phytochemical 3,3'-diindolylmethane on the phenobarbital-induced hepatic CYP mRNA expression and CYP-catalyzed reactions in female rats
3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), derived from indole-3-carbinol (I3C), is used as a dietary supplement for its putative anticancer effects that include suppression of mammary tumor growth in female rats. The mechanism of action DIM may involve its interaction(s) with hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs) catalyzing oxidations of 17beta-estradiol (E2). Our study showed that DIM added to hepatic microsomes of female Sprague-Dawley rats was primarily a competitive inhibitor of beta-naphthoflavone (beta-NF)- or I3C-induced CYP1A1 probe activity, and a potent mixed or uncompetitive inhibitor of phenobarbital (PB)-induced CYP2B1 or CYP2B2 probe activity, respectively. Microsomal metabolites of DIM were tentatively identified as two mono-hydroxy isomers of DIM, each formed preferentially by CYP1A1- or CYP2B1/2-catalyzed reaction. Evaluation of the effects of co-treatment of rats with PB and DIM by a full factorial ANOVA showed that DIM decreased the PB-induced CYP2B1 and CYP2B2 mRNA expression levels, and the rates of 2- and 4-hydroxylation of E2, and total E2 metabolite formation. The results suggest that interactions of DIM, and/or its mono-hydroxy metabolites, with CYP2B1 and CYP2B2 found to occur in hepatic microsomes upon addition of DIM or co-treatment of rats with DIM affect the rates of relevant oxidations of E2, and potentially protect against estrogen-dependent tumorigenesis.
3,3'-Diindolylmethane Exhibits Significant Metabolism after Oral Dosing in Humans
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a major phytochemical derived from ingestion of cruciferous vegetables, is also a dietary supplement. In preclinical models, DIM is an effective cancer chemopreventive agent and has been studied in a number of clinical trials. Previous pharmacokinetic studies in preclinical and clinical models have not reported DIM metabolites in plasma or urine after oral dosing, and the pharmacological actions of DIM on target tissues is assumed to be solely via the parent compound. Seven subjects (6 males and 1 female) ranging from 26-65 years of age, on a cruciferous vegetable-restricted diet prior to and during the study, took 2 BioResponse DIM 150-mg capsules (45.3 mg DIM/capsule) every evening for one week with a final dose the morning of the first blood draw. A complete time course was performed with plasma and urine collected over 48 hours and analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. In addition to parent DIM, two monohydroxylated metabolites and 1 dihydroxylated metabolite, along with their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates, were present in both plasma and urine. Results reported here are indicative of significant phase 1 and phase 2 metabolism and differ from previous pharmacokinetic studies in rodents and humans, which reported only parent DIM present after oral administration. 3-((1H-indole-3-yl)methyl)indolin-2-one, identified as one of the monohydroxylated products, exhibited greater potency and efficacy as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist when tested in a xenobiotic response element-luciferase reporter assay using Hepa1 cells. In addition to competitive phytochemical-drug adverse reactions, additional metabolites may exhibit pharmacological activity highlighting the importance of further characterization of DIM metabolism in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), derived from indole-3-carbinol in cruciferous vegetables, is an effective cancer chemopreventive agent in preclinical models and a popular dietary supplement currently in clinical trials. Pharmacokinetic studies to date have found little or no metabolites of DIM in plasma or urine. In marked contrast, we demonstrate rapid appearance of mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites in human plasma and urine as well as their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. The 3-((1H-indole-3-yl)methyl)indolin-2-one metabolite exhibited significant aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity, emphasizing the need for further characterization of the pharmacological properties of DIM metabolites.
Indole-3-carbinol, but not its major digestive product 3,3'-diindolylmethane, induces reversible hepatocyte hypertrophy and cytochromes P450
Indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) have been shown to reduce the incidence and multiplicity of cancers in laboratory animal models. Based on the observation that I-3-C induced hepatocyte hypertrophy when administered orally for 13 weeks to rats, a treatment and recovery study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the induction of hepatocyte hypertrophy and cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by I-3-C are adaptive, reversible responses. Additionally, we directly compared the effects of I-3-C to those of its principle metabolite DIM. Rats were treated orally for 28 days with 2 doses of I-3-C (5 and 50 mg I-3-C/kg body weight/day) and DIM (7.5 and 75 mg DIM/kg body weight/day) and then one-half of the animals were not treated for an additional 28 days. Organ weights, histopathology, and the CYP enzyme activities of 1A1/2, 2B1/2, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4, and 19 A were measured both after treatment and after recovery. Oral administration of 50 mg I-3-C/kg body weight/day to rats for 28 days significantly increased liver weights and CYP enzyme activities. The effects in males were more pronounced and persistent after recovery than the effects in females. The increased organ weights returned to control values after treatment. Conversely, DIM did not alter liver weights and had no effect on CYP activities after the 28-day treatment. Some changes in CYP activities were measured after the DIM recovery period but the magnitudes of the changes were considered biologically insignificant. The results show that I-3-C, but not DIM, induces reversible adaptive responses in the liver.
Differences in the hepatic P450-dependent metabolism of estrogen and tamoxifen in response to treatment of rats with 3,3'-diindolylmethane and its parent compound indole-3-carbinol
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), present in cruciferous vegetables, and its major in vivo product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been reported to suppress estrogen-responsive cancers. This effect may be mediated through the modification of cytochrome P450 (CYP) complement and activities leading to estrogen detoxification. We examined the effects of a 4-day treatment of female Sprague-Dawley rats with DIM at 8.4 and 42 mg/kg body weight (bwt), on the hepatic CYP protein level, CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1/2 and 3A1/2 probe activities and CYP-dependent metabolism of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1). At 42 mg/kg bwt, DIM effected a small increase (2.8-fold) in CYP1A1 activity, and at both dose levels it reduced CYP3A1/2 activity by approximately 40%. At the higher dose level, DIM decreased the rates of oxidation of E2 to 4-OH-E2, 4-OH-E1, 6alpha-OH-E2 and 6(alpha+beta)-OH-E1 by 39, 44, 71 and 60%, respectively, and E1 to 6(alpha+beta)-OH-E1 by 39%. These effects were considerably different from those of I3C reported by us previously. We also examined the effects of DIM and I3C on the hepatic microsomal metabolism of tamoxifen (TAM). Whereas metabolism of TAM was unaffected by DIM, formation of N-desmethyl-TAM (and its presumed derivative) was increased approximately 3-fold by I3C at 250 mg/kg bwt. Since N-desmethyl-TAM is transformed to a genotoxic metabolite, dietary exposure to I3C may enhance hepatic carcinogenicity of TAM in the rat. The differences between I3C and DIM in CYP-mediated activities and metabolism indicate that DIM is not a proximate intermediate in the mechanism of action of I3C.
3,3'-Diindolylmethane induces CYP1A2 in cultured precision-cut human liver slices
1. The effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), an indole derivative derived from cruciferous vegetables, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in the CYP1A and CYP3A subfamilies has been studied in 72-h cultured human liver slices. 2. In cultured human liver slices 50 microM DIM induced 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and to a lesser extent 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylase activities. 3. Western immunoblotting of liver slice microsomes was performed with antibodies to rat CYP1A2 and human CYP3A4. Compared with control liver slice microsomes (dimethyl sulphoxide-only treated), DIM induced levels of CYP1A2 but had little effect on levels of CYP3A4. The treatment of human liver slices with 2 microg/ml of the polycholorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254 also resulted in an induction of levels of CYP1A2, but had no effect on CYP3A4. 4. These results demonstrate that DIM induces CYP1A isoforms in cultured human liver slices. Some variability in the magnitude of induction of enzyme activities by DIM was observed in four human liver samples examined. For 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, the magnitude of induction by 50 microM DIM ranged from 2.3- to 19.3-fold. 5. These results demonstrate that cultured human liver slices can be used to evaluate the effect of chemicals derived from cruciferous and other vegetables on CYP isoforms.
Diindolylmethane, a naturally occurring compound, induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activating human PXR
Activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-regulated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) plays an important role in mediating adverse drug interactions. Given the common use of natural products as part of adjunct human health behavior, there is a growing concern about natural products for their potential to induce undesired drug interactions through the activation of hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1. Here, we studied whether 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural health supplement, could induce hPXR-mediated regulation of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestinal cells. DIM, at its physiologically relevant concentrations, not only induced hPXR transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter activity but also induced gene expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1. DIM decreased intracellular accumulation of MDR1 substrate rhodamine 123, suggesting that DIM induces the functional expression of MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knockdown of hPXR resulted in attenuation of DIM induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression, suggesting that DIM induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 in an hPXR-dependent manner. Together, these results support our conclusion that DIM induces hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression. The inductive effects of DIM on CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression caution the use of DIM in conjunction with other medications metabolized and transported via CYP3A4 and MDR1, respectively.
The anticarcinogen 3,3'-diindolylmethane is an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450
Dietary indole-3-carbinol inhibits carcinogenesis in rodents and trout. Several mechanisms of inhibition may exist. We reported previously that 3,3'-diindolylmethane, an in vivo derivative of indole-3-carbinol, is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of trout cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A-dependent ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase with Ki values in the low micromolar range. We now report a similar potent inhibition by 3,3'-diindolylmethane of rat and human CYP1A1, human CYP1A2, and rat CYP2B1 using various CYP-specific or preferential activity assays. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane also inhibited in vitro CYP-mediated metabolism of the ubiquitous food contaminant and potent hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1. There was no inhibition of cytochrome c reductase. In addition, we found 3,3'-diindolylmethane to be a substrate for rat hepatic microsomal monooxygenase(s) and tentatively identified a monohydroxylated metabolite. These observations indicate that 3,3'-diindolylmethane can inhibit the catalytic activities of a range of CYP isoforms from lower and higher vertebrates in vitro. This broadly based inhibition of CYP-mediated activation of procarcinogens may be an indole-3-carbinol anticarcinogenic mechanism applicable to all species, including humans.
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